Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection
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{"title"=>"Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yi", "last_name"=>"Xu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55695016900"}, {"first_name"=>"Albert", "last_name"=>"Lee", "scopus_author_id"=>"55658303800"}, {"first_name"=>"Wing Li", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55969254900"}, {"first_name"=>"Xuan", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55660105700"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Birkholz", "scopus_author_id"=>"23395660400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"368794673", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062397", "sgr"=>"84876522743", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84876522743", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0062397", "pmid"=>"23638065"}, "id"=>"8482da1f-6042-34f8-8308-c8c1724fc0e8", "abstract"=>"Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/human-vocal-attractiveness-signaled-body-size-projection", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Linguistics"=>17, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>17}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>4}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033946"], "description"=>"<p>Spectrograms and pitch tracks (dotted yellow lines) of the base sentences in Experiment 1 (a–c) and Experiments 2–5 (d–f). In order, the three rows of graphs represent utterances in normal, breathy, and pressed voices.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "sexual selection", "Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Sensory perception", "linguistics", "speech"], "article_id"=>689905, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Yi Xu", "Albert Lee", "Wing-Li Wu", "Xuan Liu", "Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_base_setences_/689905", "title"=>"The base setences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-24 02:45:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033953"], "description"=>"<p>Judgments of voice attractiveness (a–c) and emotion (d–e), on a scale of 1–5, as a function of Voice quality, Pitch shift, Formant shift, Final F<sub>0</sub> slope and Pitch range. Each row of the graphs (a–e) corresponds to Experiments 1–5 respectively. In each bar, the black figures represent mean rating score, while parameter values are in white. The error bars are standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "sexual selection", "Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Sensory perception", "linguistics", "speech"], "article_id"=>689911, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Yi Xu", "Albert Lee", "Wing-Li Wu", "Xuan Liu", "Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Judgment_ratings_/689911", "title"=>"Judgment ratings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-24 02:45:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033955"], "description"=>"<p>Band energy profiles of speech sounds. Each profile consists of fifteen signal energy values computed from overlapping spectral bands of 500-Hz bandwidth: 0–500, 250–750, 500–1000, … 3250–3750, 3500–4000. a, Mean band energy profiles of all 6 vowels in the three base sentences of Experiment 1, each with an intended voice quality. b, Band energy profiles of two sample files from Bruckert et al. (2010). c, Profiles of three synthetic sentences used in Experiment 2–5, each with a synthetic voice quality.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "sexual selection", "Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Sensory perception", "linguistics", "speech"], "article_id"=>689912, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Yi Xu", "Albert Lee", "Wing-Li Wu", "Xuan Liu", "Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Band_energy_profiles_/689912", "title"=>"Band energy profiles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-04-24 02:45:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033956"], "description"=>"<p>A formant shift ratio greater than 1 increases the frequency of all formants (A ratio of 1.1 simulates a shortening of the vocal tract by approximately 10%, and a ratio of 0.9 a lengthening by 10%.). Pitch shift modifies the median pitch of an entire sound. Final F<sub>0</sub> slope modifies the pitch slope of the final syllable in “exam” in Experiment 1. Pitch range expands or compresses the dynamic F<sub>0</sub> range of the entire sentence. The columns are independent of each other.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "sexual selection", "Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Sensory perception", "linguistics", "speech", "applied", "sentences"], "article_id"=>689913, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Yi Xu", "Albert Lee", "Wing-Li Wu", "Xuan Liu", "Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Parameters_and_their_changes_applied_to_the_base_sentences_for_the_preparation_of_the_stimuli_/689913", "title"=>"Parameters and their changes applied to the base sentences for the preparation of the stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-24 02:45:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033957"], "description"=>"<p>The first three measurements are in dB; the last measurement is in Hz.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "sexual selection", "Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Sensory perception", "linguistics", "speech"], "article_id"=>689914, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Yi Xu", "Albert Lee", "Wing-Li Wu", "Xuan Liu", "Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_voice_quality_/689914", "title"=>"Measurements of voice quality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-04-24 02:45:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033958", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033960", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033961", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033967", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033968", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033969", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033970", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033971", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033972", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033973", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033974", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033975", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033976", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1033977"], "description"=>"<div><p></p><p>Voice, as a secondary sexual characteristic, is known to affect the perceived attractiveness of human individuals. But the underlying mechanism of vocal attractiveness has remained unclear. Here, we presented human listeners with acoustically altered natural sentences and fully synthetic sentences with systematically manipulated pitch, formants and voice quality based on a principle of body size projection reported for animal calls and emotional human vocal expressions. The results show that male listeners preferred a female voice that signals a small body size, with relatively high pitch, wide formant dispersion and breathy voice, while female listeners preferred a male voice that signals a large body size with low pitch and narrow formant dispersion. Interestingly, however, male vocal attractiveness was also enhanced by breathiness, which presumably softened the aggressiveness associated with a large body size. These results, together with the additional finding that the same vocal dimensions also affect emotion judgment, indicate that humans still employ a vocal interaction strategy used in animal calls despite the development of complex language.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "sexual selection", "Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Sensory perception", "linguistics", "speech", "attractiveness", "signaled"], "article_id"=>689915, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Yi Xu", "Albert Lee", "Wing-Li Wu", "Xuan Liu", "Peter Birkholz"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062397.s014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>26, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Human_Vocal_Attractiveness_as_Signaled_by_Body_Size_Projection_/689915", "title"=>"Human Vocal Attractiveness as Signaled by Body Size Projection", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-04-24 02:45:15"}

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Relative Metric

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