Gauging the Threat: The First Population Estimate for White Sharks in South Africa Using Photo Identification and Automated Software
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{"title"=>"Gauging the Threat: The First Population Estimate for White Sharks in South Africa Using Photo Identification and Automated Software", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alison V.", "last_name"=>"Towner", "scopus_author_id"=>"54780810100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle A.", "last_name"=>"Wcisel", "scopus_author_id"=>"37057991500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ryan R.", "last_name"=>"Reisinger", "scopus_author_id"=>"25960361100"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Edwards", "scopus_author_id"=>"55762928600"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver J D", "last_name"=>"Jewell", "scopus_author_id"=>"54389376400"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84878935418", "sgr"=>"84878935418", "pui"=>"369102465", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"23776600", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0066035"}, "id"=>"ed68f12e-5439-3352-8f13-398f2ea566d7", "abstract"=>"South Africa is reputed to host the world’s largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs) to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007 – December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808–1008). This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/gauging-threat-first-population-estimate-white-sharks-south-africa-using-photo-identification-automa", "reader_count"=>84, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>24, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>12, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>56}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Austria"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Mexico"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084512"], "description"=>"<p>See text for criteria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "abundance", "estimates", "tested", "mark-recapture", "sighting", "histories", "sharks", "gansbaai", "open-population", "popan", "parameterisation"], "article_id"=>717972, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Alison V. Towner", "Michelle A. Wcisel", "Ryan R. Reisinger", "David Edwards", "Oliver J. D. Jewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066035.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_choice_criteria_and_abundance_estimates_N_for_four_models_tested_in_a_mark_recapture_analysis_of_individual_sighting_histories_of_white_sharks_in_the_Gansbaai_region_2007_2011_using_the_open_population_POPAN_parameterisation_in_Program_MARK_/717972", "title"=>"Model choice criteria and abundance estimates (<i>N</i>) for four models tested in a mark-recapture analysis of individual sighting histories of white sharks in the Gansbaai region (2007–2011), using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:12:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084507"], "description"=>"<p>During this time, the fin sustained significant damage to both its front and back areas, altering its profile. This affects the number of notches down the back of the fin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "photographs"], "article_id"=>717969, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Alison V. Towner", "Michelle A. Wcisel", "Ryan R. Reisinger", "David Edwards", "Oliver J. D. Jewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066035.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nine_photographs_were_obtained_for_the_study_shark_8216_Zebra_8217_between_30_08_2007_and_28_06_2011_/717969", "title"=>"Nine photographs were obtained for the study shark ‘Zebra’ between 30/08/2007 and 28/06/2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:12:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084503"], "description"=>"<p>Discovery curve for photographically identified white sharks in the Gansbaai region (2007–2011).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "photographically", "sharks", "gansbaai"], "article_id"=>717967, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Alison V. Towner", "Michelle A. Wcisel", "Ryan R. Reisinger", "David Edwards", "Oliver J. D. Jewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066035.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>65, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Discovery_curve_for_photographically_identified_white_sharks_in_the_Gansbaai_region_2007_8211_2011_/717967", "title"=>"Discovery curve for photographically identified white sharks in the Gansbaai region (2007–2011).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:12:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084504"], "description"=>"<p>This fin clearly demonstrates how small additions/changes to notches occurring on the back of the fin can distinguish it from early photos, increasing the probability of later fin IDs being identified as multiple sharks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "photographed", "times"], "article_id"=>717968, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Alison V. Towner", "Michelle A. Wcisel", "Ryan R. Reisinger", "David Edwards", "Oliver J. D. Jewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066035.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_animal_8216_Darwin_8217_photographed_numerous_times_from_2007_8211_2011_/717968", "title"=>"Study animal ‘Darwin’, photographed numerous times from 2007–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:12:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084502"], "description"=>"<p>Sighting frequency distribution of photographically identified white sharks in the Gansbaai region (2007–2011).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "photographically", "sharks", "gansbaai"], "article_id"=>717966, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Alison V. Towner", "Michelle A. Wcisel", "Ryan R. Reisinger", "David Edwards", "Oliver J. D. Jewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066035.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sighting_frequency_distribution_of_photographically_identified_white_sharks_in_the_Gansbaai_region_2007_8211_2011_/717966", "title"=>"Sighting frequency distribution of photographically identified white sharks in the Gansbaai region (2007–2011).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:12:46"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084514"], "description"=>"<div><p>South Africa is reputed to host the world’s largest remaining population of white sharks, yet no studies have accurately determined a population estimate based on mark-recapture of live individuals. We used dorsal fin photographs (fin IDs) to identify white sharks in Gansbaai, South Africa, from January 2007 – December 2011. We used the computer programme DARWIN to catalogue and match fin IDs of individuals; this is the first study to successfully use the software for white shark identification. The programme performed well despite a number of individual fins showing drastic changes in dorsal fin shape over time. Of 1682 fin IDs used, 532 unique individuals were identified. We estimated population size using the open-population POPAN parameterisation in Program MARK, which estimated the superpopulation size at 908 (95% confidence interval 808–1008). This estimated population size is considerably larger than those described at other aggregation areas of the species and is comparable to a previous South African population estimate conducted 16 years prior. Our assessment suggests the species has not made a marked recovery since being nationally protected in 1991. As such, additional international protection may prove vital for the long-term conservation of this threatened species.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "sharks", "africa", "automated"], "article_id"=>717974, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Alison V. Towner", "Michelle A. Wcisel", "Ryan R. Reisinger", "David Edwards", "Oliver J. D. Jewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066035", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gauging_the_Threat_The_First_Population_Estimate_for_White_Sharks_in_South_Africa_Using_Photo_Identification_and_Automated_Software_/717974", "title"=>"Gauging the Threat: The First Population Estimate for White Sharks in South Africa Using Photo Identification and Automated Software", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:12:54"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1084510"], "description"=>"<p>Vindication features numerous, subtle changes in harsh contrast to the minimal, significant scars on the other examples above. On Vindication’s dorsal fin, white pigmentation ‘roise’ changes occurred slowley over time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "Population modeling", "ecology", "Ecological metrics", "Population size", "Conservation science", "Marine ecology", "Population ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine conservation", "Marine monitoring", "Population biology", "Population metrics", "marine and aquatic sciences", "sharks", "photographed"], "article_id"=>717970, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Alison V. Towner", "Michelle A. Wcisel", "Ryan R. Reisinger", "David Edwards", "Oliver J. D. Jewell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066035.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_shark_8216_Vindication_8217_one_of_the_few_sharks_to_be_photographed_at_least_once_in_every_year_from_2007_8211_2011_/717970", "title"=>"Study shark ‘Vindication’, one of the few sharks to be photographed at least once in every year from 2007–2011.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-06-12 02:12:50"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[290, 478, 601, 716, 816, 914, 1016, 1112, 1203, 1285, 1373, 1451, 1516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences", "average_usage"=>[297, 488, 616, 724, 828, 939, 1038, 1127, 1223, 1311, 1393, 1479, 1556]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[259, 431, 541, 639, 727, 816, 898, 980, 1061, 1136, 1214, 1294, 1356]}]}
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