Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union
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{"title"=>"Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Stickley", "scopus_author_id"=>"22951777700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ai", "last_name"=>"Koyanagi", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197741912"}, {"first_name"=>"Bayard", "last_name"=>"Roberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"24328789700"}, {"first_name"=>"Erica", "last_name"=>"Richardson", "scopus_author_id"=>"23061378400"}, {"first_name"=>"Pamela", "last_name"=>"Abbott", "scopus_author_id"=>"35607397000"}, {"first_name"=>"Sergei", "last_name"=>"Tumanov", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601920105"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"McKee", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202304775"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84879802690", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0067978", "sgr"=>"84879802690", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"23861843", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369260722"}, "id"=>"010955a4-15e6-3f8d-95e6-0113cd466c7a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU)--a region where loneliness has been little studied to date.\\n\\nMETHODS: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries--Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine--in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress).\\n\\nRESULTS: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/loneliness-correlates-association-health-behaviours-outcomes-nine-countries-former-soviet-union", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Design"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Psychology"=>9, "Social Sciences"=>13, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>13}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>9}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Ireland"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111675"], "description"=>"<p>Data are %.</p>†<p>Education was classified as: low (less than complete secondary education), middle (completed secondary education), high (incomplete or complete higher education).</p>*<p>Physical activity difficulty was assessed by the question ‘How easily can you go up 2 or 3 flights of stairs or go uphill without getting out of breath?’</p>§<p>Answers to the question ‘I feel that what happens in life is often determined by factors beyond my control’ were classified as: disagree/rather disagree (high), quite agree (middle), agree (low).</p>‡<p>Principal component analysis was used to generate the wealth index based on the possession of 10 household assets.</p>¶<p>Level of social support was based on a composite score (refer to text for details).</p>#<p>Death of a close relative was assessed by the question ‘During the last months, have you experienced the death of a close relative?’</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Clinical research design", "Cross-sectional studies", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Drug dependence", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Mood disorders", "Substance abuse", "psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Human relations", "Psychological stress", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Psychological and psychosocial issues", "Quality of life", "Medical sociology", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sociology", "Human families", "social networks", "Social stratification", "social welfare"], "article_id"=>739901, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Andrew Stickley", "Ai Koyanagi", "Bayard Roberts", "Erica Richardson", "Pamela Abbott", "Sergei Tumanov", "Martin McKee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067978.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_study_sample_N_8202_8202_18000_/739901", "title"=>"Characteristics of the study sample (N = 18000).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:28:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111676"], "description"=>"<p>Adjusted for sex, age, marital status, education, location, household size, physical activity difficulty, locus of control, wealth, social support, and death of close relative.</p>#<p>Loneliness was assessed by the question ‘How often do you feel lonely?’ and those who answered ‘Often’ were coded as 1 and ‘Sometimes/Rarely/Never’ as 0.</p>†<p>Alcohol consumption was based on the question ‘How often do you consume alcoholic drinks of any type?’ with 8 main response categories ranging from ‘Every day’ to ‘Never’. Those who did not respond ‘Never’ were categorised as alcohol consumers. Heavy episodic drinking was usual consumption of at least one of the following on one occasion: ≥200 g of strong spirits (e.g. vodka), ≥2 litres of beer, ≥750 g of industrially produced wine/champagne. CAGE problem drinking was based on 4 questions: Have you ever felt you should cut down on your drinking?; Have people annoyed you by criticizing your drinking?; Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your drinking?; Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or to get rid of a hangover (eye opener)? Answers to these questions were coded as 1 (yes) and 0 (no) and added to create a scale ranging from 0 to 4. Those who scored ≥2 on this scale were CAGE problem drinkers. Smoking referred to answering ‘Yes’ to the question ‘Do you smoke at least one cigarette (papirossi, pipe, cigar) per day?’.</p>‡<p>Poor self-rated health was claiming to have poor or very poor health in general. Psychological distress was assessed by a composite score based on 11 questions (refer to text for details) and referred to those with the highest quintile of scores.</p>a<p>P<0.05, <sup>b</sup> P<0.01, <sup>c</sup> P<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Clinical research design", "Cross-sectional studies", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Drug dependence", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Mood disorders", "Substance abuse", "psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Human relations", "Psychological stress", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Psychological and psychosocial issues", "Quality of life", "Medical sociology", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sociology", "Human families", "social networks", "Social stratification", "social welfare", "behaviours", "outcomes", "multivariate", "logistic"], "article_id"=>739902, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Andrew Stickley", "Ai Koyanagi", "Bayard Roberts", "Erica Richardson", "Pamela Abbott", "Sergei Tumanov", "Martin McKee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067978.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_between_loneliness_and_health_behaviours_and_outcomes_estimated_by_multivariate_logistic_regression_/739902", "title"=>"Association between loneliness, and health behaviours and outcomes estimated by multivariate logistic regression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:28:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1111677"], "description"=>"<p>Mutually adjusted for all covariates in the model.</p><p>Loneliness was assessed by the question ‘How often do you feel lonely?’ and those who answered ‘Often’ were coded as ‘1’ and ‘Sometimes/Rarely/Never’ as ‘0’.</p><p>Reference categories were: sex (male), age (18–29), marital status (married/cohabiting), education (high), location (urban), household size (≥2), physical activity (no major difficulties), locus of control (high), wealth (high), social support (high), death of a close relative (no).</p>†<p>Education was classified as: low (less than complete secondary education), middle (completed secondary education), high (incomplete or complete higher education).</p>*<p>Physical activity difficulty was assessed by the question ‘How easily can you go up 2 or 3 flights of stairs or go uphill without getting out of breath?’.</p>§<p>Answers to the question ‘I feel that what happens in life is often determined by factors beyond my control’ were classified as: disagree/rather disagree (high), quite agree (middle), agree (low).</p>‡<p>Principal component analysis was used to generate the wealth index based on the possession of 10 household assets.</p>¶<p>Level of social support was based on a composite score (refer to text for details).</p>#<p>Death of a close relative was assessed by the question ‘During the last months, have you experienced the death of a close relative?’.</p>a<p>P<0.05, <sup>b</sup> P<0.01, <sup>c</sup> P<0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Clinical research design", "Cross-sectional studies", "Survey research", "Drugs and devices", "Behavioral pharmacology", "Drug dependence", "Mental health", "psychiatry", "Mood disorders", "Substance abuse", "psychology", "Clinical psychology", "Human relations", "Psychological stress", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Health risk analysis", "Psychological and psychosocial issues", "Quality of life", "Medical sociology", "Socioeconomic aspects of health", "Public health", "alcohol", "Behavioral and social aspects of health", "Sociology", "Human families", "social networks", "Social stratification", "social welfare", "loneliness", "multivariate", "logistic"], "article_id"=>739903, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Andrew Stickley", "Ai Koyanagi", "Bayard Roberts", "Erica Richardson", "Pamela Abbott", "Sergei Tumanov", "Martin McKee"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067978.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predictors_of_loneliness_estimated_by_multivariate_logistic_regression_/739903", "title"=>"Predictors of loneliness estimated by multivariate logistic regression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-04 02:28:27"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[306, 490, 611, 718, 817, 916, 999, 1091, 1185, 1258, 1341, 1412, 1476]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[273, 476, 611, 714, 821, 911, 1005, 1103, 1201, 1287, 1388, 1478, 1557]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Public and occupational health", "average_usage"=>[291, 491, 610, 723, 817, 906, 991, 1071, 1153, 1238, 1324, 1411, 1478]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}]}
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