Beyond the Levant: First Evidence of a Pre-Pottery Neolithic Incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia
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{"title"=>"Beyond the Levant: First Evidence of a Pre-Pottery Neolithic Incursion into the Nefud Desert, Saudi Arabia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rémy", "last_name"=>"Crassard", "scopus_author_id"=>"26535670100"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael D.", "last_name"=>"Petraglia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003671891"}, {"first_name"=>"Adrian G.", "last_name"=>"Parker", "scopus_author_id"=>"8209232100"}, {"first_name"=>"Ash", "last_name"=>"Parton", "scopus_author_id"=>"54785920500"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard G.", "last_name"=>"Roberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404281684"}, {"first_name"=>"Zenobia", "last_name"=>"Jacobs", "scopus_author_id"=>"23392343600"}, {"first_name"=>"Abdullah", "last_name"=>"Alsharekh", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504770701"}, {"first_name"=>"Abdulaziz", "last_name"=>"Al-Omari", "scopus_author_id"=>"55497877900"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Breeze", "scopus_author_id"=>"55496453700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nick A.", "last_name"=>"Drake", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003403258"}, {"first_name"=>"Huw S.", "last_name"=>"Groucutt", "scopus_author_id"=>"37120127600"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Jennings", "scopus_author_id"=>"26024778600"}, {"first_name"=>"Emmanuelle", "last_name"=>"Régagnon", "scopus_author_id"=>"56053014300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ceri", "last_name"=>"Shipton", "scopus_author_id"=>"24778858900"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369379106", "pmid"=>"23894294", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0068061", "sgr"=>"84880425661", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880425661"}, "id"=>"f547cc74-f4cc-37d6-9a33-8c602c0af187", "abstract"=>"Pre-Pottery Neolithic assemblages are best known from the fertile areas of the Mediterranean Levant. The archaeological site of Jebel Qattar 101 (JQ-101), at Jubbah in the southern part of the Nefud Desert of northern Saudi Arabia, contains a large collection of stone tools, adjacent to an Early Holocene palaeolake. The stone tool assemblage contains lithic types, including El-Khiam and Helwan projectile points, which are similar to those recorded in Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B assemblages in the Fertile Crescent. Jebel Qattar lies ∼500 kilometres outside the previously identified geographic range of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures. Technological analysis of the typologically diagnostic Jebel Qattar 101 projectile points indicates a unique strategy to manufacture the final forms, thereby raising the possibility of either direct migration of Levantine groups or the acculturation of mobile communities in Arabia. The discovery of the Early Holocene site of Jebel Qattar suggests that our view of the geographic distribution and character of Pre-Pottery Neolithic cultures may be in need of revision.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/beyond-levant-first-evidence-prepottery-neolithic-incursion-nefud-desert-saudi-arabia", "reader_count"=>50, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>20, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>17, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>17}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>20}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Finland"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123679"], "description"=>"<p>Total number of lithics from the general surface collection and from the six trenches (systematic collection).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "lithics", "trenches"], "article_id"=>749187, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_number_of_lithics_from_the_general_surface_collection_and_from_the_six_trenches_systematic_collection_/749187", "title"=>"Total number of lithics from the general surface collection and from the six trenches (systematic collection).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123680"], "description"=>"a<p>Radiocarbon years before present (BP).</p>b<p>Calendar years BC and BP, calibrated using the IntCal09 data set <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Reimer1\" target=\"_blank\">[127]</a>. Age ranges are listed at both the 68% and 95% confidence interval (CI).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "calibrated", "radiocarbon", "ages"], "article_id"=>749188, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conventional_and_calibrated_radiocarbon_ages_for_site_JQ_200_/749188", "title"=>"Conventional and calibrated radiocarbon ages for site JQ-200.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123681"], "description"=>"a<p>Mean ± total (1σ) uncertainty, calculated as the quadratic sum of the random and systematic errors.</p>b<p>Sum of dose rate contributions from beta particles (0.113±0.006 Gy/ka), gamma rays (0.170±0.009 Gy/ka), cosmic radiation (estimated as 0.20±0.02 Gy/ka) and alpha emitters inside the quartz grains (assumed as 0.03±0.01 Gy/ka). Calculated for a water content of 5±2%, which is higher than the measured (field) water content (0.92%) to allow for the subsequent lake and swamp conditions. For each 1% increase in water content, the total dose rate decreases (and the OSL age increases) by ∼1%. The beta and gamma dose rates were measured by low-level beta counting and field gamma spectrometry, respectively, using the same equipment and procedures as described by Petraglia et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Petraglia1\" target=\"_blank\">[56]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Petraglia2\" target=\"_blank\">[58]</a>. The cosmic-ray dose rate was calculated following Prescott and Hutton <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Prescott1\" target=\"_blank\">[125]</a>, taking into consideration the time and rate of deposition of the overlying lacustrine and aeolian units.</p>c<p>3000 grains were measured and analysed as follows: preheat of 260°C for 10 s (natural and regenerative doses) or 220°C for 5 s (test doses); green laser stimulation at 90% power for 2 s at 125°C; OSL signal from initial 0.2 s and background from final 0.3 s of stimulation; use of saturating exponential function to fit dose-response curves and estimate the equivalent dose (D<sub>e</sub>). The D<sub>e</sub> measurement uncertainty includes variation in background-corrected OSL counts, laser repositioning error (2% per measurement) and curve-fitting errors estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. Forty-nine grains (1.6%) satisfied all of the criteria used to identify grains with suitable OSL properties for reliable D<sub>e</sub> determination <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Jacobs1\" target=\"_blank\">[68]</a>. Of the 2951 grains rejected, 2640 were discarded because the OSL signals were too dim to discern above background, and 311 were rejected on the basis of feldspar contamination, high ‘recuperation’ or a poor ‘recycling ratio’. The weighted mean D<sub>e</sub> was calculated for the remaining grains using the Central Age Model <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Galbraith1\" target=\"_blank\">[70]</a>, after discarding three values (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone-0068061-g005\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 5</a>) that differ from the weighted mean by >2σ and have normalised median absolute deviations of >1.5 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Powell1\" target=\"_blank\">[126]</a>. Including these outliers increases the weighted mean by 0.38 Gy, which is within statistical error of the tabulated D<sub>e</sub> value. The total uncertainty on the weighted mean includes the additional spread (‘overdispersion’) of 23±4% in D<sub>e</sub> values beyond that associated with measurement uncertainties for individual grains <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Galbraith2\" target=\"_blank\">[71]</a> and a relative error of 2% for possible bias in the calibration of the laboratory beta source.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "stimulated", "luminescence", "supporting"], "article_id"=>749189, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Optically_Stimulated_Luminescence_OSL_age_and_supporting_data_for_sample_JQ200_OSL1_/749189", "title"=>"Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) age and supporting data for sample JQ200-OSL1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123682"], "description"=>"<p>Raw material types (counts) from the six trenches (systematic collection).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "types", "trenches"], "article_id"=>749190, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Raw_material_types_counts_from_the_six_trenches_systematic_collection_/749190", "title"=>"Raw material types (counts) from the six trenches (systematic collection).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123683"], "description"=>"<p>Artefact types (tools, cores and technical pieces).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "types", "cores"], "article_id"=>749191, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Artefact_types_tools_cores_and_technical_pieces_/749191", "title"=>"Artefact types (tools, cores and technical pieces).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123623"], "description"=>"<p>The JQ-101 site is located in the southern part of the Nefud Desert in Saudi Arabia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "neolithic", "geo-cultural", "zones", "fertile", "aurenche", "kozlowski"], "article_id"=>749132, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Neolithic_Near_East_with_the_different_geo_cultural_zones_of_the_core_area_or_Fertile_Crescent_in_green_after_Aurenche_and_Kozlowski_82_/749132", "title"=>"Map of the Neolithic Near East with the different geo-cultural zones of the core area (or Fertile Crescent), in green; after Aurenche and Kozlowski [82].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123632"], "description"=>"<p>Potential Holocene drainage is displayed in blue, with currently severed drainage connections that may have been active during Holocene humid periods interpreted and displayed in grey. Numbered Wadis: (1) Wadi as Sirhan, (2) Wadi al Hamd, (3) Euphrates, (4) Wadi al Batin, (5) Wadi Sabha. Potential palaeolake or swamp deposits detected through remote sensing which may relate to Holocene humidity are displayed for the region surrounding Jubbah. All data is overlain upon SRTMv4 elevation data <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Jarvis1\" target=\"_blank\">[124]</a> and Natural Earth 2 offshore data. Archaeological site locations calculated from survey data of the ‘Comprehensive Archaeological Survey Programme’, more information is provided in Groucutt and Petraglia <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Groucutt1\" target=\"_blank\">[111]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "sites", "arabia"], "article_id"=>749141, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Neolithic_sites_of_northern_Arabia_and_palaeohydrology_/749141", "title"=>"Neolithic sites of northern Arabia and palaeohydrology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123644"], "description"=>"<p>A: 3D view of the sites, from the northern slope of Jebel Qattar; B:\ntopographic map of Jebel Qattar area with mentioned sites, framed zone is expanded in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone-0068061-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "jq-101", "jq-200", "jebel"], "article_id"=>749153, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_setting_of_JQ_101_and_JQ_200_at_Jebel_Qattar_/749153", "title"=>"General setting of JQ-101 and JQ-200 at Jebel Qattar.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123646"], "description"=>"<p>Showing mean particle size, magnetic susceptibility, LOI 550°C (organics) and LOI 950°C (carbonates). Radiocarbon ages are shown in cal. BC.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "palaeolake"], "article_id"=>749155, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sedimentological_analyses_from_the_palaeolake_sequence_at_JQ_201_/749155", "title"=>"Sedimentological analyses from the palaeolake sequence at JQ-201.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123647"], "description"=>"<p>Radial plot of the equivalent dose (D<sub>e</sub>) values obtained from 49 individual grains of quartz from sample JQ200-OSL1. Filled circles denote the 46 values used to calculate the weighted mean D<sub>e</sub> for OSL age determination, and open triangles are the three values identified as outliers (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone-0068061-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>). Each point represents the D<sub>e</sub> value for a single grain. It can be read off the radial axis by extending a line from zero on the ‘standardised estimate’ axis through the point of interest, and the ‘relative error’ on this D<sub>e</sub> can be read by projecting a vertical line to intersect the horizontal axis. The ‘precision’ is the reciprocal of the relative error, so the most precise D<sub>e</sub> estimates lie furthest to the right. The grey band is centred on the weighted mean D<sub>e</sub> estimated using the Central Age Model. Individual D<sub>e</sub> values that are consistent at 2σ with this weighted mean fall within the grey band. This D<sub>e</sub> distribution is overdispersed by 23±4%, which is typical for well-bleached samples of quartz that have not been disturbed since burial. See Galbraith and Roberts <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Galbraith2\" target=\"_blank\">[71]</a> for further explanation of statistical aspects of D<sub>e</sub> estimation and display in OSL dating.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "stimulated", "luminescence"], "article_id"=>749156, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Optically_Stimulated_Luminescence_OSL_dating_/749156", "title"=>"Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123655"], "description"=>"<p>General views of JQ-101 site while excavated and surveyed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "views", "jq-101", "excavated"], "article_id"=>749164, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_views_of_JQ_101_site_while_excavated_and_surveyed_/749164", "title"=>"General views of JQ-101 site while excavated and surveyed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123658"], "description"=>"<p>Map of artefacts distribution on surface at JQ-101, with trenches localisation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "artefacts", "trenches"], "article_id"=>749166, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_artefacts_distribution_on_surface_at_JQ_101_with_trenches_localisation_/749166", "title"=>"Map of artefacts distribution on surface at JQ-101, with trenches localisation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123659"], "description"=>"<p>It is based on maps in Kozlowski and Aurenche <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061#pone.0068061-Kozlowski1\" target=\"_blank\">[73]</a>. JQ-101 lays more than 500 km from the “core area”.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "levantine", "sites", "el", "khiam"], "article_id"=>749167, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>386, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_Levantine_sites_with_El_Khiam_points_/749167", "title"=>"Map of the Levantine sites with El Khiam points.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123660"], "description"=>"<p>The enlarged views represent the basal ventrally retouched parts (x3). Top one (broken) is in crystal quartz.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "el-khiam", "points"], "article_id"=>749168, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>440, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Three_El_Khiam_points_from_JQ_101_/749168", "title"=>"Three El-Khiam points from JQ-101.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123665"], "description"=>"<p>1,2 are complete; 3 is fragmentary; and a possible Gilgal truncation (4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "helwan", "points", "salem"], "article_id"=>749173, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_JQ_101_Helwan_points_Abu_Salem_points_sub_type_/749173", "title"=>"JQ-101 Helwan points (Abu Salem points sub-type).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123669"], "description"=>"<p>Examples of different types of tanged with no barbs or barbed and tanged arrowheads.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating", "types", "projectile", "points"], "article_id"=>749177, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Others_types_of_projectile_points_from_JQ_101_/749177", "title"=>"Others types of projectile points from JQ-101.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1123671"], "description"=>"<p>One long burin spall is shown bottom right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Evolutionary biology", "Paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "geography", "Geomorphology", "anthropology", "archaeology", "Radioactive carbon dating"], "article_id"=>749179, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Sociology", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Rémy Crassard", "Michael D. Petraglia", "Adrian G. Parker", "Ash Parton", "Richard G. Roberts", "Zenobia Jacobs", "Abdullah Alsharekh", "Abdulaziz al-Omari", "Paul Breeze", "Nick A. Drake", "Huw S. Groucutt", "Richard Jennings", "Emmanuelle Régagnon", "Ceri Shipton"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068061.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Burins_from_JQ_101_/749179", "title"=>"Burins from JQ-101.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-19 02:06:33"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[290, 478, 601, 716, 816, 914, 1016, 1112, 1203, 1285, 1373, 1451, 1516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[605, 959, 1140, 1273, 1412, 1552, 1709, 1830, 1959, 2077, 2241, 2360, 2456]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[284, 475, 603, 722, 826, 928, 1026, 1129, 1225, 1310, 1390, 1468, 1549]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecological environments", "average_usage"=>[261, 401]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[298, 487, 610, 722, 827, 929, 1029, 1125, 1217, 1306, 1388, 1464, 1535]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecosystems", "average_usage"=>[284, 427]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Archaeology", "average_usage"=>[739, 1366, 1510, 2134, 2342, 2585, 2717, 2803, 2931, 3109, 3521, 3814, 4002, 4159]}]}
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