Elevated CO2 Levels do not Affect the Shell Structure of the Bivalve Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic
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{"title"=>"Elevated CO2 Levels do not Affect the Shell Structure of the Bivalve Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kristina", "last_name"=>"Stemmer", "scopus_author_id"=>"21740362800"}, {"first_name"=>"Gernot", "last_name"=>"Nehrke", "scopus_author_id"=>"11141559100"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Brey", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003817748"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84880771486", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0070106", "pui"=>"369442811", "pmid"=>"23922922", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84880771486", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"2483dd63-de70-3bae-81a6-9fbbd3bc8575", "abstract"=>"Shells of the bivalve Arctica islandica are used to reconstruct paleo-environmental conditions (e.g. temperature) via biogeochemical proxies, i.e. biogenic components that are related closely to environmental parameters at the time of shell formation. Several studies have shown that proxies like element and isotope-ratios can be affected by shell growth and microstructure. Thus it is essential to evaluate the impact of changing environmental parameters such as high pCO2 and consequent changes in carbonate chemistry on shell properties to validate these biogeochemical proxies for a wider range of environmental conditions. Growth experiments with Arctica islandica from the Western Baltic Sea kept under different pCO2 levels (from 380 to 1120 microatm) indicate no affect of elevated pCO2 on shell growth or crystal microstructure, indicating that A. islandica shows an adaptation to a wider range of pCO2 levels than reported for other species. Accordingly, proxy information derived from A. islandica shells of this region contains no pCO2 related bias.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/elevated-co2-levels-not-affect-shell-structure-bivalve-arctica-islandica-western-baltic-1", "reader_count"=>11, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Belgium"=>1, "Hong Kong"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1135002"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Sketch of shell-cross-section with major shell structures. (B) Magnification of outer shell margin from the cross-section showing calcein mark and additional shell growth in height and thickness.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure"], "article_id"=>758208, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shell_growth_measurements_/758208", "title"=>"Shell growth measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1134999"], "description"=>"<p>New grown shell was measured at the line of strongest growth (LSG). Arrows indicate the direction of growth (dog).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure", "calcein", "indicates"], "article_id"=>758206, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Arctica_islandica_shell_showing_a_green_calcein_mark_that_indicates_the_start_of_the_p_CO_2_incubation_/758206", "title"=>"<i>Arctica islandica</i> shell showing a green calcein mark that indicates the start of the <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> incubation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1135010"], "description"=>"<p>Column five and six give the shell growth rate per day at the line of strongest growth (LSG) in height and in thickness. To present shell growth rate per day, the measured total shell growth during the experiment was divided by the 90 days of the experiment. No. = continuous sample number; sample = sample code; <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> [µatm] = concentration of gas-mix applied.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure", "rates"], "article_id"=>758215, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_growth_rates_of_Arctica_islandica_/758215", "title"=>"Daily growth rates of <i>Arctica islandica</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1135009"], "description"=>"<p>Measured and calculated mean values. <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub>-gas [µatm] = concentration of <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> in perturbation gas; A<i><sub>T</sub></i> [mmol kg<b><sup>−</sup></b><sup>1</sup>] = Total Alkalinity; Sal = Salinity; T (°C) = Temperature in Celsius; pH<sub>NBS</sub> = pH calibrated with Nist Buffer Standard; C<i><sub>T</sub></i> [mmol kg<b><sup>−</sup></b><sup>1</sup>] = Total dissolved inorganic carbon; <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub>-sw [µatm] = concentration of <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> in seawater; Ω arag = saturation state of aragonite; SD = standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure", "seawater"], "article_id"=>758214, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbonate_system_parameters_of_the_experimental_seawater_over_time_90_days_/758214", "title"=>"Carbonate system parameters of the experimental seawater over time (90 days).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1135005"], "description"=>"<p>Shell growth in height (A) and thickness (B) did not differ significantly under three different <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> levels (n = 11–13, one-way ANOVA, height: = 0.503, p = 0.609; thickness: F = 1.227, p = 0.306; JMP9).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure", "thickness", "did", "one-way"], "article_id"=>758210, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Shell_growth_in_height_A_and_thickness_B_did_not_differ_significantly_under_three_different_p_CO_2_levels_n_8202_8202_11_8211_13_one_way_ANOVA_height_8202_8202_0_503_p_8202_8202_0_609_thickness_F_8202_8202_1_227_p_8202_8202_0_306_JMP9_/758210", "title"=>"Shell growth in height (A) and thickness (B) did not differ significantly under three different <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> levels (n = 11–13, one-way ANOVA, height: = 0.503, p = 0.609; thickness: F = 1.227, p = 0.306; JMP9).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1134998"], "description"=>"<p>The temperature controlled room was supplied with one filter-tank (sediment filter and UV-sterilization), one 250 l perturbation tank and one 30 l perturbed header tank per <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub>-level. From the header tanks the CO<sub>2</sub>-enriched water and the control water flowed down to triplicates of 4 l incubation tanks. In each tank 10 animals were incubated, i.e. a total of 30 clams per <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub>-level. A plastic lid sealed all tanks to prevent gas exchange with the atmosphere. Seawater-flow rate from header to incubation tank was 150 ml/min.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure"], "article_id"=>758205, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_setup_for_p_CO_2_perturbation_/758205", "title"=>"Experimental-setup for <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> perturbation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1135008"], "description"=>"<p>Crystal fabrics of new shell material grown under different <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> levels. (A) The growth line (gl) stained with calcein at starter point of the <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> incubation is visible due to smaller crystals. HOM = homogeneous crystal fabric. (B) Inner shell layer (ISL) with distinct crossed-acicular crystal fabric. (C) Latest formed crystal fabric.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure"], "article_id"=>758213, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SEM_images_/758213", "title"=>"SEM images.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1135003"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Transition zone of shell material grown under normal and <i>p</i>CO<sub>2</sub> perturbated conditions in the outer shell layer (OSL) (green line = calcein mark). (B) Inner shell layer (ISL). (C) Last precipitated shell material at the very tip of the shell.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ecology", "Bioindicators", "Biogeochemistry", "Ecophysiology", "Marine ecology", "Evolutionary biology", "Evolutionary processes", "adaptation", "aging", "Evolutionary ecology", "Marine biology", "Marine monitoring", "Paleontology", "Invertebrate paleontology", "Paleoclimatology", "biomaterials", "crystallography", "microstructure", "areas", "sem", "images"], "article_id"=>758209, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Kristina Stemmer", "Gernot Nehrke", "Thomas Brey"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070106.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sketch_of_outer_shell_margin_from_the_cross_section_with_areas_where_SEM_images_were_taken_/758209", "title"=>"Sketch of outer shell margin from the cross section with areas where SEM images were taken.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-07-29 02:05:05"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Hydrology", "average_usage"=>[253, 387, 495, 587, 670, 757, 847, 930, 1011, 1082, 1167, 1237, 1309]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Mineralogy", "average_usage"=>[234, 432, 539, 670, 780, 885, 958, 1048, 1114, 1198, 1266, 1342, 1406, 1465]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[250, 417, 535, 649, 758, 857, 952, 1036, 1113, 1206, 1287, 1353, 1429]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[254, 421, 527, 626, 720, 813, 900, 983, 1063, 1136, 1210, 1283, 1342]}]}
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