Estimating Potential Infection Transmission Routes in Hospital Wards Using Wearable Proximity Sensors
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{"title"=>"Estimating Potential Infection Transmission Routes in Hospital Wards Using Wearable Proximity Sensors", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Philippe", "last_name"=>"Vanhems"}, {"first_name"=>"Alain", "last_name"=>"Barrat"}, {"first_name"=>"Ciro", "last_name"=>"Cattuto"}, {"first_name"=>"Jean-François", "last_name"=>"Pinton"}, {"first_name"=>"Nagham", "last_name"=>"Khanafer"}, {"first_name"=>"Corinne", "last_name"=>"Régis"}, {"first_name"=>"Byeul-a", "last_name"=>"Kim"}, {"first_name"=>"Brigitte", "last_name"=>"Comte"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicolas", "last_name"=>"Voirin"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84890767224", "sgr"=>"84890767224", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "arxiv"=>"1309.3640", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0073970", "pmid"=>"24040129", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"563067357"}, "id"=>"213887e7-2150-3d96-ad2f-a87e3b787a32", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Contacts between patients, patients and health care workers (HCWs) and among HCWs represent one of the important routes of transmission of hospital-acquired infections (HAI). A detailed description and quantification of contacts in hospitals provides key information for HAIs epidemiology and for the design and validation of control measures.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: We used wearable sensors to detect close-range interactions (\"contacts\") between individuals in the geriatric unit of a university hospital. Contact events were measured with a spatial resolution of about 1.5 meters and a temporal resolution of 20 seconds. The study included 46 HCWs and 29 patients and lasted for 4 days and 4 nights. 14,037 contacts were recorded overall, 94.1% of which during daytime. The number and duration of contacts varied between mornings, afternoons and nights, and contact matrices describing the mixing patterns between HCW and patients were built for each time period. Contact patterns were qualitatively similar from one day to the next. 38% of the contacts occurred between pairs of HCWs and 6 HCWs accounted for 42% of all the contacts including at least one patient, suggesting a population of individuals who could potentially act as super-spreaders.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Wearable sensors represent a novel tool for the measurement of contact patterns in hospitals. The collected data can provide information on important aspects that impact the spreading patterns of infectious diseases, such as the strong heterogeneity of contact numbers and durations across individuals, the variability in the number of contacts during a day, and the fraction of repeated contacts across days. This variability is however associated with a marked statistical stability of contact and mixing patterns across days. Our results highlight the need for such measurement efforts in order to correctly inform mathematical models of HAIs and use them to inform the design and evaluation of prevention strategies.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/estimating-potential-infection-transmission-routes-hospital-wards-using-wearable-proximity-sensors", "reader_count"=>85, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Computer Science"=>16, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Design"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>14, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>14}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>9}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>4}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>16}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>5, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200514"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in parenthesis give the percentage with respect to the total number and durations of all detected contacts.</p>*<p>Abbreviations: NUR, paramedical staff (nurses and nurses’ aides); PAT, Patient; MED, Medical doctor; ADM, administrative staff.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["duration", "contacts", "pairs", "individuals", "belonging"], "article_id"=>796533, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_number_and_duration_of_contacts_between_pairs_of_individuals_belonging_to_specific_classes_/796533", "title"=>"Total number and duration of contacts between pairs of individuals belonging to specific classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200513"], "description"=>"<p>“Super-contactors” are defined as individuals with the highest number of contacts. Here for instance, six HCWs account for more than 40% of the cumulative total of contact numbers and durations. Abbreviations: HCW, healthcare worker; NUR, paramedical staff (nurses and nurses’ aides); MED, Medical doctor.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["patients", "cumulative", "duration", "contacts", "hcw"], "article_id"=>796532, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_distinct_patients_contacted_number_and_cumulative_duration_in_seconds_of_contacts_with_at_least_one_patient_for_each_HCW_NURs_and_MEDs_/796532", "title"=>"Number of distinct patients contacted, number and cumulative duration (in seconds) of contacts with at least one patient for each HCW (NURs and MEDs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200508"], "description"=>"<p>In the first line, the matrix entry at row X and column Y gives the total number (resp. duration) of all contacts between all individuals of class with all individuals of class Y. In the second line, the matrix entry at row X and column Y gives the average number (resp. duration) of contacts of an individual of class X with individuals of class Y, during the whole study. In the third line, we normalize each matrix element of the second line matrices by the duration of the study, in days, to obtain average daily numbers and durations of the contacts of an individual of class X with any individual of class Y. The asymmetry of the matrices in the second and third lines is due to the different numbers of individuals populating each class. Abbreviations: NUR, paramedical staff (nurses and nurses’ aides); PAT, Patient; MED, Medical doctor; ADM, administrative staff.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrices", "giving", "numbers", "cumulated", "durations", "seconds", "contacts", "classes"], "article_id"=>796527, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contacts_matrices_giving_the_numbers_left_column_and_cumulated_durations_in_seconds_right_column_of_the_contacts_between_classes_of_individuals_/796527", "title"=>"Contacts matrices giving the numbers (left column) and cumulated durations in seconds (right column) of the contacts between classes of individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200518"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Contacts between patients, patients and health care workers (HCWs) and among HCWs represent one of the important routes of transmission of hospital-acquired infections (HAI). A detailed description and quantification of contacts in hospitals provides key information for HAIs epidemiology and for the design and validation of control measures.</p><p>Methods and Findings</p><p>We used wearable sensors to detect close-range interactions (“contacts”) between individuals in the geriatric unit of a university hospital. Contact events were measured with a spatial resolution of about 1.5 meters and a temporal resolution of 20 seconds. The study included 46 HCWs and 29 patients and lasted for 4 days and 4 nights. 14,037 contacts were recorded overall, 94.1% of which during daytime. The number and duration of contacts varied between mornings, afternoons and nights, and contact matrices describing the mixing patterns between HCW and patients were built for each time period. Contact patterns were qualitatively similar from one day to the next. 38% of the contacts occurred between pairs of HCWs and 6 HCWs accounted for 42% of all the contacts including at least one patient, suggesting a population of individuals who could potentially act as super-spreaders.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Wearable sensors represent a novel tool for the measurement of contact patterns in hospitals. The collected data can provide information on important aspects that impact the spreading patterns of infectious diseases, such as the strong heterogeneity of contact numbers and durations across individuals, the variability in the number of contacts during a day, and the fraction of repeated contacts across days. This variability is however associated with a marked statistical stability of contact and mixing patterns across days. Our results highlight the need for such measurement efforts in order to correctly inform mathematical models of HAIs and use them to inform the design and evaluation of prevention strategies.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["routes", "wards", "wearable", "proximity"], "article_id"=>796537, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimating_Potential_Infection_Transmission_Routes_in_Hospital_Wards_Using_Wearable_Proximity_Sensors_/796537", "title"=>"Estimating Potential Infection Transmission Routes in Hospital Wards Using Wearable Proximity Sensors", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200516"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in parenthesis give the standard deviation.</p>*<p>Abbreviations: NUR, paramedical staff (nurses and nurses’ aides); PAT, Patient; MED, Medical doctor; ADM, administrative staff.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["individuals", "duration", "contacts"], "article_id"=>796535, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_individuals_in_each_class_and_average_number_and_duration_of_contacts_during_the_study_per_individual_in_each_class_/796535", "title"=>"Number of individuals in each class, and average number and duration of contacts during the study per individual in each class.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200517"], "description"=>"<p>We show the average of these quantities over all HCWs, all NURs and all MEDs as well as the values for the six HCWs with most contacts.</p>*<p>Calculated over the total number of patients in the study, n = 29.</p>**<p>Calculated over the cumulative number and duration of contacts with patients in the study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["duration", "contacts", "hcws"], "article_id"=>796536, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_and_duration_of_contacts_of_HCWs_NURs_and_MEDs_with_patients_/796536", "title"=>"Number and duration of contacts of HCWs (NURs and MEDs) with patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200515"], "description"=>"*<p>19 contacts started the morning and ended the afternoon.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["duration", "contacts", "individuals", "periods", "aggregated", "workdays"], "article_id"=>796534, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_and_duration_of_contacts_between_individuals_in_the_various_periods_of_the_days_aggregated_over_the_observation_period_of_4_workdays_and_4_nights_/796534", "title"=>"Number and duration of contacts between individuals in the various periods of the days, aggregated over the observation period of 4 workdays and 4 nights.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200512"], "description"=>"<p>In each matrix, the entry at row X and column Y gives the total number of contacts of all individuals of class X with all individuals of class Y during each period. Abbreviations: NUR, paramedical staff (nurses and nurses’ aides); PAT, Patient; MED, Medical doctor; ADM, administrative staff.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["matrices", "classes", "individuals"], "article_id"=>796531, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Contacts_matrices_between_classes_of_individuals_in_each_morning_afternoon_and_night_/796531", "title"=>"Contacts matrices between classes of individuals in each morning, afternoon and night.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1200511"], "description"=>"<p>Top row: global number of contacts. Middle and bottom rows: number of contacts involving patients, healthcare workers and medical doctors. The left plots give the number of contacts as a function of the time since the start of the week (Monday, 0∶00 AM). The right plots display the number of contacts of several types in each day, as a function of the hour of the day, to show the similarity of the curves in different days. Abbreviations: NUR, paramedical staff (nurses and nurses’ aides); PAT, Patient; MED, Medical doctor; ADM, administrative staff.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["contacts", "1-hour"], "article_id"=>796530, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Philippe Vanhems", "Alain Barrat", "Ciro Cattuto", "Jean-François Pinton", "Nagham Khanafer", "Corinne Régis", "Byeul-a Kim", "Brigitte Comte", "Nicolas Voirin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073970.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_contacts_per_1_hour_periods_/796530", "title"=>"Number of contacts per 1-hour periods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-11 01:35:22"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"38", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[278, 463, 587, 692, 804, 897, 984, 1068, 1165, 1254, 1339, 1429, 1490]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}]}
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