Horizontal Transfer of Diatomaceous Earth and Botanical Insecticides in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.; Hemiptera: Cimicidae
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{"title"=>"Horizontal Transfer of Diatomaceous Earth and Botanical Insecticides in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.; Hemiptera: Cimicidae", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Yasmin", "last_name"=>"Akhtar", "scopus_author_id"=>"57195959158"}, {"first_name"=>"Murray B.", "last_name"=>"Isman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004446046"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84884571311", "pmid"=>"24086593", "sgr"=>"84884571311", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0075626", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"369882986"}, "id"=>"9946861c-538c-3168-aa87-1bec9a18658d", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests.\\n\\nMETHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor) bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient) bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51) was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees.\\n\\nCONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/horizontal-transfer-diatomaceous-earth-botanical-insecticides-common-bed-bug-cimex-lectularius-l-hem", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>12, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Design"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215654"], "description"=>"<p>There were 4 replicates of 6 bugs each. Exposed bed bug was excluded from the data (N = 20). ** Significantly different from all treatments including control. *Significantly different from control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["de", "ryania", "rotenone", "exposed", "replicates", "insects", "20", "mg", "placed", "untreated"], "article_id"=>808053, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yasmin Akhtar", "Murray B. Isman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075626.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Horizontal_transfer_of_DE_51_neem_ryania_and_rotenone_in_C_lectularius_through_an_exposed_bug_N_4_replicates_of_6_insects_each_one_bed_bug_with_prior_exposure_to_20_mg_of_DE_51_neem_ryania_and_rotenone_was_placed_with_5_untreated_bugs_control_insects_wer/808053", "title"=>"Horizontal transfer of DE 51, neem, ryania and rotenone in <i>C. lectularius</i> through an exposed bug; N = 4 replicates of 6 insects each; one bed bug with prior exposure to 20 mg of DE 51, neem, ryania and rotenone was placed with 5 untreated bugs; control insects were not exposed to the dust.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 01:54:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215653"], "description"=>"<p>There were 5 replicates of 6 bugs each. Exposed bed bug was excluded from the data; N = 25.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unexposed", "placed", "exposed", "concentrations", "de", "51", "15", "20"], "article_id"=>808052, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yasmin Akhtar", "Murray B. Isman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075626.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_LT_50_values_of_unexposed_C_lectularius_when_placed_with_a_bed_bug_exposed_to_different_concentrations_of_DE_51_5_10_15_and_20_mg_/808052", "title"=>"LT<sub>50</sub> values of unexposed <i>C. lectularius</i> when placed with a bed bug exposed to different concentrations of DE 51 (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 01:54:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215647"], "description"=>"<p>General experimental procedure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>808046, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yasmin Akhtar", "Murray B. Isman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075626.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_General_experimental_procedure_/808046", "title"=>"General experimental procedure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 01:54:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215656"], "description"=>"*<p>LC<sub>50</sub> values (concentration causing 50% mortality; in mg) were calculated based on 4 concentrations (5–20 mg) for each sample when an exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed adult bed bugs.</p><p>− not calculated due to low mortality</p><p>There were 5 replicates of 6 bugs each. Exposed bed bug was excluded from the data (N = 25)</p><p>LC<sub>50</sub> values for the dye were not calculated due to low mortality; there was no mortality in the control group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diatomaceous", "de", "51", "adults", "exposed"], "article_id"=>808055, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yasmin Akhtar", "Murray B. Isman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075626.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Horizontal_transfer_of_diatomaceous_earth_DE_51_in_C_lectularius_adults_through_a_single_exposed_bed_bug_/808055", "title"=>"Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth, DE 51 in <i>C. lectularius</i> adults through a single exposed bed bug.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 01:54:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215655"], "description"=>"*<p>LC<sub>50</sub> values (concentration causing 50% mortality; in mg) were calculated based on 4 concentrations (5–20 mg) for each sample when four exposed adult bed bugs were placed with six unexposed nymphs (1<sup>st</sup>–2<sup>nd</sup> instar)</p><p>− not calculated due to low mortality</p><p>+ not calculated due to high mortality</p><p>There were 4 replicates of 10 bugs each. Mortality is based on a total of 24 nymphs and 16 adult bed bugs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["diatomaceous", "de", "51", "nymphs", "exposed"], "article_id"=>808054, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yasmin Akhtar", "Murray B. Isman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075626.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Horizontal_transfer_of_diatomaceous_earth_DE_51_to_nymphs_through_exposed_adult_bed_bugs_/808054", "title"=>"Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth, DE 51 to nymphs through exposed adult bed bugs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 01:54:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215652"], "description"=>"<p>There was no mortality in the control group. There were 5 replicates of 6 bugs each. Exposed bed bug was excluded from the data; N = 25.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["de", "51", "exposed", "20", "mg", "dye", "placed", "unexposed"], "article_id"=>808051, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yasmin Akhtar", "Murray B. Isman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075626.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Horizontal_transfer_of_DE_51_in_C_lectularius_through_an_exposed_bug_one_bed_bug_exposed_to_20_mg_of_DE_51_or_a_mixture_of_DE_51_and_the_dye_10_mg_each_or_dye_20_mg_alone_was_placed_with_5_unexposed_bed_bugs_LT_50_8202_8202_time_required_to_kill_50_of_th/808051", "title"=>"Horizontal transfer of DE 51 in <i>C. lectularius</i> through an exposed bug; one bed bug exposed to 20 mg of DE 51 or a mixture of DE 51 and the dye (10 mg each) or dye (20 mg) alone was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs; LT<sub>50</sub> = time required to kill 50% of the bugs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 01:54:25"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1215651"], "description"=>"<p>Adult bed bug, ventral view, showing accumulation of red dye particles around the bases of legs and distal tip of the abdomen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ventral", "accumulation", "dye", "particles", "bases", "legs", "distal"], "article_id"=>808050, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Yasmin Akhtar", "Murray B. Isman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075626.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adult_bed_bug_ventral_view_showing_accumulation_of_red_dye_particles_around_the_bases_of_legs_and_distal_tip_of_the_abdomen_/808050", "title"=>"Adult bed bug, ventral view, showing accumulation of red dye particles around the bases of legs and distal tip of the abdomen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-09-25 01:54:25"}

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Relative Metric

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