Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality
Publication Date
October 16, 2013
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Anne Marijke Schel, Simon W. Townsend, Zarin Machanda, Klaus Zuberbühler, et al
Volume
8
Issue
10
Pages
e76674
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0076674
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24146908
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3797826
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/24146908
Web of Science
000326019400080
Scopus
84885701141
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/chimpanzee-alarm-call-production-meets-key-criteria-intentionality
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anne Marijke", "last_name"=>"Schel", "scopus_author_id"=>"24923563300"}, {"first_name"=>"Simon W.", "last_name"=>"Townsend", "scopus_author_id"=>"24529190300"}, {"first_name"=>"Zarin", "last_name"=>"Machanda", "scopus_author_id"=>"26634111700"}, {"first_name"=>"Klaus", "last_name"=>"Zuberbühler", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701504799"}, {"first_name"=>"Katie E.", "last_name"=>"Slocombe", "scopus_author_id"=>"8918715000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84885701141", "pui"=>"370046433", "sgr"=>"84885701141", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24146908", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0076674"}, "id"=>"69895446-a86c-3f7e-8ea1-822990258266", "abstract"=>"Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/chimpanzee-alarm-call-production-meets-key-criteria-intentionality", "reader_count"=>157, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>30, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>36, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>21, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>37, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>30, "Other"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>36, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>8}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>70, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>45, "Social Sciences"=>11, "Linguistics"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>11}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>45}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>70}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>7}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Japan"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239830"], "description"=>"<p>This Figure illustrates (A) Soft Huu (SH), (B) Alarm Huu (AH) and (C) Waa Bark (WB) vocalizations. The x-axis represents time in seconds, the y-axis frequency (KHz). The darkness of the image represents the amount of acoustic energy present, or the amplitude of the sound. SH are short (∼100 ms), tonal, and low pitched (<500 Hz), and usually have a low amplitude and little frequency modulation (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674#pone.0076674.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Audio S1</a>). These soft calls are unlikely to be heard by individuals further than 50 m from the call producer and are comparable with the ‘huu vocalizations’ described by Goodall <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674#pone.0076674-Goodall1\" target=\"_blank\">[11]</a> as well as the alert hoos reported in Crockford et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674#pone.0076674-Crockford1\" target=\"_blank\">[10]</a>. AH are longer, louder, higher pitched, and with more frequency modulation compared to soft huus (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674#pone.0076674.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Audio S2</a>). These tonal calls are comparable with the ‘alarm calls’ described in Slocombe and Zuberbühler <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674#pone.0076674-Slocombe4\" target=\"_blank\">[72]</a>. WB are loud, abrupt sounds with a noisy spectral quality (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674#pone.0076674.s006\" target=\"_blank\">Audio S3</a>). They typically start with a low frequency ‘w’ introduction at call onset, followed by considerable frequency modulation in the subsequent higher frequency element that can sound like an ‘aa’ ‘aow’ or ‘aoo’ sound to the human ear.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["spectrographic", "representations", "chimpanzee"], "article_id"=>824843, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anne Marijke Schel", "Simon W. Townsend", "Zarin Machanda", "Klaus Zuberbühler", "Katie E. Slocombe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_spectrographic_representations_of_chimpanzee_alarm_calls_/824843", "title"=>"Example spectrographic representations of chimpanzee alarm calls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:18:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239831"], "description"=>"<p>The snake image represents the location of the python model, concealed by leaves not depicted. Observers are depicted by grey asterisks and their main roles defined. Observer 4 was optional in the set-up. The chimpanzee image depicts the focal chimpanzee, who could be accompanied by other group members depending on the experimental condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>824844, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anne Marijke Schel", "Simon W. Townsend", "Zarin Machanda", "Klaus Zuberbühler", "Katie E. Slocombe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diagram_of_the_experimental_set_up_/824844", "title"=>"Diagram of the experimental set up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:18:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239832"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of cases (raw data) where a look to another chimpanzee was present/absent in the 5 sec before a new call bout as a function of the type of call then given.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cases", "chimpanzee", "sec", "bout"], "article_id"=>824845, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anne Marijke Schel", "Simon W. Townsend", "Zarin Machanda", "Klaus Zuberbühler", "Katie E. Slocombe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_cases_raw_data_where_a_look_to_another_chimpanzee_was_present_absent_in_the_5_sec_before_a_new_call_bout_as_a_function_of_the_type_of_call_then_given_/824845", "title"=>"Percentage of cases (raw data) where a look to another chimpanzee was present/absent in the 5 sec before a new call bout as a function of the type of call then given.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:18:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239833"], "description"=>"<p>Behaviours continuously coded from when the snake was revealed to the end of the trial when the focal individual had moved further than 10</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["continuously", "coded", "revealed", "focal", "had", "moved", "further"], "article_id"=>824846, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anne Marijke Schel", "Simon W. Townsend", "Zarin Machanda", "Klaus Zuberbühler", "Katie E. Slocombe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Behaviours_continuously_coded_from_when_the_snake_was_revealed_to_the_end_of_the_trial_when_the_focal_individual_had_moved_further_than_10_/824846", "title"=>"Behaviours continuously coded from when the snake was revealed to the end of the trial when the focal individual had moved further than 10", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:18:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239834"], "description"=>"*<p>indicates applicable only to visual signals and therefore not relevant for vocal production.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["intentional", "communicative", "outlined", "ape", "gestures"], "article_id"=>824847, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anne Marijke Schel", "Simon W. Townsend", "Zarin Machanda", "Klaus Zuberbühler", "Katie E. Slocombe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Criteria_used_for_identifying_intentional_production_of_communicative_signals_as_outlined_in_the_study_of_great_ape_gestures_19_36_/824847", "title"=>"Criteria used for identifying intentional production of communicative signals, as outlined in the study of great ape gestures [19]–[36].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:18:47"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239835", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239836", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239837", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239838", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239839", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1239840"], "description"=>"<div><p>Determining the intentionality of primate communication is critical to understanding the evolution of human language. Although intentional signalling has been claimed for some great ape gestural signals, comparable evidence is currently lacking for their vocal signals. We presented wild chimpanzees with a python model and found that two of three alarm call types exhibited characteristics previously used to argue for intentionality in gestural communication. These alarm calls were: (i) socially directed and given to the arrival of friends, (ii) associated with visual monitoring of the audience and gaze alternations, and (iii) goal directed, as calling only stopped when recipients were safe from the predator. Our results demonstrate that certain vocalisations of our closest living relatives qualify as intentional signals, in a directly comparable way to many great ape gestures. We conclude that our results undermine a central argument of gestural theories of language evolution and instead support a multimodal origin of human language.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["meets"], "article_id"=>824848, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anne Marijke Schel", "Simon W. Townsend", "Zarin Machanda", "Klaus Zuberbühler", "Katie E. Slocombe"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076674.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chimpanzee_Alarm_Call_Production_Meets_Key_Criteria_for_Intentionality_/824848", "title"=>"Chimpanzee Alarm Call Production Meets Key Criteria for Intentionality", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-16 04:18:47"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Zoology", "average_usage"=>[294, 473, 591, 693, 788, 883, 972, 1054, 1140, 1222, 1299, 1381, 1446]}]}
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