The Phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood
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{"title"=>"The phylogeny of little red riding hood", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jamshid J.", "last_name"=>"Tehrani", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603069935"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893597977", "pui"=>"372309786", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0078871", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84893597977", "pmid"=>"24236061"}, "id"=>"9370115d-1f59-32c0-91c4-340c482015e0", "abstract"=>"Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the 'historic-geographic' school, it is possible to classify similar tales into \"international types\" and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, 'Little Red Riding Hood'. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, 'The Wolf and the Kids'. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/phylogeny-little-red-riding-hood", "reader_count"=>243, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>54, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>11, "Student > Master"=>41, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>13, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>54, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>18, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>60, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Other"=>11, "Student > Master"=>41, "Student > Bachelor"=>19, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>120, "Arts and Humanities"=>18, "Philosophy"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Computer Science"=>9, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Design"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>5, "Psychology"=>15, "Social Sciences"=>24, "Linguistics"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>24}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>15}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>18}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>3}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>120}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>9}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>9}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>7, "Japan"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>6, "Portugal"=>1, "Russia"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "New Zealand"=>1, "Canada"=>2, "Austria"=>1, "Sweden"=>2, "Netherlands"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "Denmark"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "France"=>4, "Germany"=>7}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279101", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279102", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279103", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279104", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279105", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279106"], "description"=>"<div><p>Researchers have long been fascinated by the strong continuities evident in the oral traditions associated with different cultures. According to the ‘historic-geographic’ school, it is possible to classify similar tales into “international types” and trace them back to their original archetypes. However, critics argue that folktale traditions are fundamentally fluid, and that most international types are artificial constructs. Here, these issues are addressed using phylogenetic methods that were originally developed to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among biological species, and which have been recently applied to a range of cultural phenomena. The study focuses on one of the most debated international types in the literature: ATU 333, ‘Little Red Riding Hood’. A number of variants of ATU 333 have been recorded in European oral traditions, and it has been suggested that the group may include tales from other regions, including Africa and East Asia. However, in many of these cases, it is difficult to differentiate ATU 333 from another widespread international folktale, ATU 123, ‘The Wolf and the Kids’. To shed more light on these relationships, data on 58 folktales were analysed using cladistic, Bayesian and phylogenetic network-based methods. The results demonstrate that, contrary to the claims made by critics of the historic-geographic approach, it is possible to identify ATU 333 and ATU 123 as distinct international types. They further suggest that most of the African tales can be classified as variants of ATU 123, while the East Asian tales probably evolved by blending together elements of both ATU 333 and ATU 123. These findings demonstrate that phylogenetic methods provide a powerful set of tools for testing hypotheses about cross-cultural relationships among folktales, and point towards exciting new directions for research into the transmission and evolution of oral narratives.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["phylogeny", "riding"], "article_id"=>849351, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jamshid J. Tehrani"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>32, "page_views"=>94, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Phylogeny_of_Little_Red_Riding_Hood_/849351", "title"=>"The Phylogeny of Little Red Riding Hood", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:36:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279100"], "description"=>"<p>To test whether key similarities between the East Asian tales and ATU 123 and ATU 333 are ancestral, the presence/absence of each trait in the hypothesised last common ancestor (LCA) of ATU 123 and ATU 333 was reconstructed under parsimony and Bayesian inference. The cells in the Parsimony column show that the traits were absent in the LCA of ATU 333 and ATU 123 in all of the most parsimonious trees (MPTs) returned by a cladistic analysis. The cells in the Bayesian column show the mean probability of each trait being present in the LCA of ATU 333 and ATU 123 across the Bayesian distribution of trees. The variance in the mean values for all traits was less than 0.1. See Methods section for details of both analyses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ancestral", "states", "asian", "tales", "atu", "123"], "article_id"=>849350, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jamshid J. Tehrani"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Reconstructed_ancestral_states_for_traits_shared_between_East_Asian_tales_and_ATU_123_and_ATU_333_/849350", "title"=>"Reconstructed ancestral states for traits shared between East Asian tales and ATU 123 and ATU 333.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:36:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279097"], "description"=>"<p>Major groupings are labelled by region or ATU international type and indicated by the coloured nodes. Sub-types are indicated in the taxa labels (RH  =  Little Red Riding Hood; GM  =  Story of Grandmother; Catt  =  Catterinella; WK  =  The Wolf and the Kids; TG  =  Tiger Grandmother). Variants by particular authors, or from countries/ethnic groups that are discussed in the text have individual labels. Numbers beside the edges represent the level of support for individual clades returned by the bootstrap analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["parsimonious", "trees", "returned", "cladistic"], "article_id"=>849347, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jamshid J. Tehrani"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Majority_rules_consensus_of_the_most_parsimonious_trees_returned_by_the_cladistic_analysis_of_the_tales_/849347", "title"=>"Majority-rules consensus of the most parsimonious trees returned by the cladistic analysis of the tales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:36:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279096"], "description"=>"<p>Numbers in the circles refer to the variants listed in the Supporting Information (Table SI.1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["approximate", "locations", "tales"], "article_id"=>849346, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jamshid J. Tehrani"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_approximate_locations_from_which_tales_were_sourced_/849346", "title"=>"Map of the approximate locations from which tales were sourced.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:36:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279099"], "description"=>"<p>Major groupings are labelled by region and/or ATU international type and indicated by the coloured nodes. Overlapping box-like structures indicate conflicting signal in the data. The scale bar indicates the proportion of characters in which states differ among the tales being compared.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["graph", "returned", "neighbournet"], "article_id"=>849349, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jamshid J. Tehrani"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Split_graph_returned_by_the_NeighbourNet_analysis_of_the_tales_/849349", "title"=>"Split graph returned by the NeighbourNet analysis of the tales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:36:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1279098"], "description"=>"<p>Major groupings are labelled by region and/or ATU international type and indicated by the coloured nodes. Numbers beside the edges represent the percentage of trees in the Bayesian posterior distribution of trees in which a given node occurred. The scale bar indicates the average number of changes per character along a given edge.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["clade", "returned", "bayesian", "phylogenetic"], "article_id"=>849348, "categories"=>["Science Policy", "Information And Computing Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences", "Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jamshid J. Tehrani"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078871.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maximum_clade_credibility_tree_returned_by_the_Bayesian_phylogenetic_analysis_of_the_tales_/849348", "title"=>"Maximum clade credibility tree returned by the Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the tales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-13 03:36:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"31", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Data management", "average_usage"=>[301, 521, 654, 776, 898, 1028, 1133, 1258, 1373, 1457, 1542, 1648, 1738]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Computer and information sciences/Data visualization", "average_usage"=>[293, 478, 588, 673, 782, 884, 973, 1055, 1126, 1239, 1329, 1404, 1497]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[259, 431, 541, 639, 727, 816, 898, 980, 1061, 1136, 1214, 1294, 1356]}]}
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