Local Perceptions, Cultural Beliefs and Practices That Shape Umbilical Cord Care: A Qualitative Study in Southern Province, Zambia
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{"title"=>"Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: A qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julie M.", "last_name"=>"Herlihy", "scopus_author_id"=>"56343270700"}, {"first_name"=>"Affan", "last_name"=>"Shaikh", "scopus_author_id"=>"56002293300"}, {"first_name"=>"Arthur", "last_name"=>"Mazimba", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507772332"}, {"first_name"=>"Natalie", "last_name"=>"Gagne", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001996600"}, {"first_name"=>"Caroline", "last_name"=>"Grogan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001094000"}, {"first_name"=>"Chipo", "last_name"=>"Mpamba", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001677300"}, {"first_name"=>"Bernadine", "last_name"=>"Sooli", "scopus_author_id"=>"56002425600"}, {"first_name"=>"Grace", "last_name"=>"Simamvwa", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001538600"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine", "last_name"=>"Mabeta", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001356300"}, {"first_name"=>"Peggy", "last_name"=>"Shankoti", "scopus_author_id"=>"56001451600"}, {"first_name"=>"Lisa", "last_name"=>"Messersmith", "scopus_author_id"=>"55485922100"}, {"first_name"=>"Katherine", "last_name"=>"Semrau", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603281616"}, {"first_name"=>"Davidson H.", "last_name"=>"Hamer", "scopus_author_id"=>"35433232300"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372116760", "sgr"=>"84892391453", "pmid"=>"24244447", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84892391453", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079191", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"b34b855e-a38b-3cb8-83f8-76c2108e01a4", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices.\\n\\nMETHODS AND FINDINGS: This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust), lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil) and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces). Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize effectiveness of evidence-based interventions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/local-perceptions-cultural-beliefs-practices-shape-umbilical-cord-care-qualitative-study-southern-pr-6", "reader_count"=>73, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>11, "Student > Master"=>19, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>18, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>33, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>12, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>33}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>12}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1272428"], "description"=>"<p>The size of the font represents the frequency at which this term was mentioned in focus group discussions and in-depth interviews.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>844587, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Julie M. Herlihy", "Affan Shaikh", "Arthur Mazimba", "Natalie Gagne", "Caroline Grogan", "Chipo Mpamba", "Bernadine Sooli", "Grace Simamvwa", "Catherine Mabeta", "Peggy Shankoti", "Lisa Messersmith", "Katherine Semrau", "Davidson H. Hamer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079191.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Word_Cloud_of_Cord_Applications_/844587", "title"=>"Word Cloud of Cord Applications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-07 04:07:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1272430"], "description"=>"<p>Blood clots in umbilical vein are called <i>bulongo-longo</i> in Chitonga and thought to foreshadow ill health. (Photo Credit: Luke Mullany PhD, Tanzania).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>844589, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Julie M. Herlihy", "Affan Shaikh", "Arthur Mazimba", "Natalie Gagne", "Caroline Grogan", "Chipo Mpamba", "Bernadine Sooli", "Grace Simamvwa", "Catherine Mabeta", "Peggy Shankoti", "Lisa Messersmith", "Katherine Semrau", "Davidson H. Hamer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079191.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bulongo_longo_/844589", "title"=>"<i>Bulongo-longo</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-07 04:07:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1272431"], "description"=>"<p>Adaption of Kleinman’s health care system as a cultural system framework with illustrative examples of cord beliefs in Southern Province, Zambia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["illustrative", "examples", "beliefs"], "article_id"=>844590, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Julie M. Herlihy", "Affan Shaikh", "Arthur Mazimba", "Natalie Gagne", "Caroline Grogan", "Chipo Mpamba", "Bernadine Sooli", "Grace Simamvwa", "Catherine Mabeta", "Peggy Shankoti", "Lisa Messersmith", "Katherine Semrau", "Davidson H. Hamer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079191.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>447, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adaption_of_Kleinman_8217_s_health_care_system_as_a_cultural_system_framework_with_illustrative_examples_of_cord_beliefs_in_Southern_Province_Zambia_/844590", "title"=>"Adaption of Kleinman’s health care system as a cultural system framework with illustrative examples of cord beliefs in Southern Province, Zambia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-07 04:07:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1272432"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices.</p> <p>Methods and Findings</p><p>This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust), lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil) and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces). Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, <i>bulongo-longo</i>, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of <i>bulongo-longo</i> or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers.</p> <p>Conclusion</p><p>Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize effectiveness of evidence-based interventions.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["beliefs", "practices", "umbilical", "qualitative"], "article_id"=>844591, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Julie M. Herlihy", "Affan Shaikh", "Arthur Mazimba", "Natalie Gagne", "Caroline Grogan", "Chipo Mpamba", "Bernadine Sooli", "Grace Simamvwa", "Catherine Mabeta", "Peggy Shankoti", "Lisa Messersmith", "Katherine Semrau", "Davidson H. Hamer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079191", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Local_Perceptions_Cultural_Beliefs_and_Practices_That_Shape_Umbilical_Cord_Care_A_Qualitative_Study_in_Southern_Province_Zambia_/844591", "title"=>"Local Perceptions, Cultural Beliefs and Practices That Shape Umbilical Cord Care: A Qualitative Study in Southern Province, Zambia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-07 04:07:42"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"58", "full-text"=>"59", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"55", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"40", "full-text"=>"48", "pdf"=>"27", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"48", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"94", "full-text"=>"105", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"78", "full-text"=>"88", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"65", "full-text"=>"74", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"69", "full-text"=>"73", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"113", "full-text"=>"146", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"72", "full-text"=>"89", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"122", "full-text"=>"140", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"11", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"74", "full-text"=>"94", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"85", "full-text"=>"99", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"108", "full-text"=>"143", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"101", "full-text"=>"121", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"123", "full-text"=>"131", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"112", "full-text"=>"126", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"82", "full-text"=>"92", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"89", "full-text"=>"95", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"96", "full-text"=>"116", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"152", "full-text"=>"169", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"106", "full-text"=>"118", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"68", "full-text"=>"71", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"80", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"113", "full-text"=>"141", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"97", "full-text"=>"118", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"149", "full-text"=>"186", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"156", "full-text"=>"211", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"140", "full-text"=>"167", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"98", "full-text"=>"115", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"105", "full-text"=>"118", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"170", "full-text"=>"185", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"81", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"76", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"185", "full-text"=>"233", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"89", "full-text"=>"98", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"85", "full-text"=>"97", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"109", "full-text"=>"137", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"67", "full-text"=>"70", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"82", "full-text"=>"99", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"75", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"101", "full-text"=>"112", "pdf"=>"12", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"91", "full-text"=>"114", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"117", "full-text"=>"146", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"120", "full-text"=>"148", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"92", "full-text"=>"102", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"112", "full-text"=>"126", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"128", "full-text"=>"145", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 440, 562, 666, 765, 856, 944, 1028, 1112, 1198, 1282, 1362, 1430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 441, 564, 668, 769, 859, 948, 1034, 1117, 1202, 1290, 1368, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy and physiology", "average_usage"=>[253, 430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Health care", "average_usage"=>[278, 463, 587, 692, 804, 897, 984, 1068, 1165, 1254, 1339, 1429, 1490]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[270, 456, 573, 676, 773, 867, 955, 1037, 1120, 1205, 1286, 1363, 1436]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Geographical locations", "average_usage"=>[263, 456, 571, 673, 776, 866, 955, 1040, 1132, 1217, 1310, 1391, 1454]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[265, 456, 578, 682, 782, 881, 965, 1053, 1133, 1223, 1310, 1391, 1457]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[289, 475, 593, 703, 805, 902, 990, 1078, 1158, 1250, 1336, 1417, 1482]}]}
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