A Rat Model of Hemidystonia Induced by 3-Nitropropionic Acid
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{"title"=>"A Rat Model of Hemidystonia Induced by 3-Nitropropionic Acid", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Huan Guang", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"37161739900"}, {"first_name"=>"Yu", "last_name"=>"Ma", "scopus_author_id"=>"57192714561"}, {"first_name"=>"Da Wei", "last_name"=>"Meng", "scopus_author_id"=>"55334559400"}, {"first_name"=>"An Chao", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"46261657400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jian guo", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55918009700"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24194961", "sgr"=>"84886058971", "pui"=>"370091261", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84886058971", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0079199"}, "id"=>"5b37e3fa-e6d5-3600-9832-1c4f0c139c5e", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE: Secondary dystonia commonly presents as hemidystonia and is often refractory to current treatments. We aimed to establish an inducible rat model of hemidystonia utilizing 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) and to determine the pathophysiology of this model.\\n\\nMETHODS: Two different doses of 3-NP were stereotactically administered into the ipsilateral caudate putamen (CPu) of Wistar rats. Behavioral changes and alterations in the neurotransmitter levels in the basal ganglia were analyzed. We also performed an electromyogram, 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging and transmission electron microscopy examination to determine the pathophysiology of the model.\\n\\nRESULTS: In the CPu region, 3-NP produced mitochondrial cristae rupture, axonal degeneration, increased excitatory synaptic vesicles and necrosis. The extracellular concentrations of excitatory amino acids increased, whereas the inhibitory amino acids decreased in the CPu. Furthermore, an imbalance of neurotransmitters was found in other regions of the basal ganglia with the exception of the external globus pallidus. This study demonstrated that 3-NP administration results in CPu damage, and combined with a neurotransmitter imbalance in the basal ganglia, it produces specific neurobehavioral changes in rats. Right limb (contralateral side of CPu lesion) and trunk dystonic postures, shortened step length and ipsiversive dystonic posturing were observed in these rats. Furthermore, EMG recordings confirmed that co-contraction of the agonist and antagonist muscles could be seen for several seconds in right limbs.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic injection of 3-NP into the ipsilateral CPu of rats established an inducible model for hemidystonia. This effect might result from an imbalance of neurotransmitter levels, which induce dysfunctional activity of the basal ganglia mainly via the cortico-striato-GPi direct pathway. Symptoms in this model were present for 1 week. Activation of the cortico-striato-GPe indirect pathway and rebalance of neurotransmitters may lead to recovery. This rat model may be a suitable tool used to understand and further investigate the pathophysiology of dystonia.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/rat-model-hemidystonia-induced-3nitropropionic-acid", "reader_count"=>3, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256578"], "description"=>"<p>The results are expressed as the mean ± SD; <sup>†</sup><i>p</i> > 0.05, <sup>**</sup><i>p</i> < 0.01 vs. control rats.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gly", "gaba", "cpu", "gpi", "gpe", "stn", "hemidystonia", "rats", "3-np", "compared"], "article_id"=>831372, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentrations_of_Asp_Glu_Gly_and_GABA_in_the_CPu_a_GPi_b_GPe_c_and_STN_d_in_hemidystonia_rats_4_956_mol_3_NP_injected_Day_7_compared_to_the_control_rats_/831372", "title"=>"Concentrations of Asp, Glu, Gly and GABA in the CPu (a), GPi (b), GPe (c) and STN (d) in hemidystonia rats (4 μmol 3-NP injected, Day-7) compared to the control rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256575"], "description"=>"<p>On the 1st day, the MRI results mainly showed edema (black arrow) that was associated with partial necrosis in the CPu region. On the 3rd day, the edema began to extenuate, while the necrosis was aggravated. On the 7th day, the MRI results mainly showed necrosis (white arrow). The lesions were more severe in the high-dose group compared to the low-dose group. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mri", "examinations", "3-np"], "article_id"=>831369, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_7_0_T_MRI_examinations_after_3_NP_injection_/831369", "title"=>"7.0-T MRI examinations after 3-NP injection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256574"], "description"=>"<p>Persistent co-contraction of the two muscles could be seen for several seconds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recorded", "agonist", "antagonist", "triceps", "gastrocnemius", "tibialis", "anterior", "muscles", "24h", "3-np"], "article_id"=>831368, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>179, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EMG_recorded_from_agonist_and_antagonist_triceps_gastrocnemius_green_and_tibialis_anterior_blue_muscles_in_the_awake_rat_24h_after_3_NP_injection_/831368", "title"=>"EMG recorded from agonist and antagonist triceps gastrocnemius (green) and tibialis anterior (blue) muscles in the awake rat, 24h after 3-NP injection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256568"], "description"=>"<p>Persistent co-contraction of the two muscles could be seen for several seconds.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recorded", "agonist", "antagonist", "triceps", "brachii", "biceps", "muscles", "24h", "3-np"], "article_id"=>831366, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>284, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EMG_recorded_from_agonist_and_antagonist_triceps_brachii_green_and_biceps_brachii_blue_muscles_in_the_awake_rat_24h_after_3_NP_injection_/831366", "title"=>"EMG recorded from agonist and antagonist triceps brachii (green) and biceps brachii (blue) muscles in the awake rat, 24h after 3-NP injection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256564"], "description"=>"<p>The signals confirmed that fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves (black arrow indicated) simultaneously emerged in the agonist and antagonist muscles in the right forelimbs (a), while the EMG signals in the left forelimbs were normal (b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["recorded", "agonist", "antagonist", "triceps", "brachii", "biceps", "muscles", "anesthetized", "24h", "3-np"], "article_id"=>831362, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EMG_recorded_from_agonist_and_antagonist_triceps_brachii_green_and_biceps_brachii_blue_muscles_in_the_anesthetized_rat_24h_after_3_NP_injection_/831362", "title"=>"EMG recorded from agonist and antagonist triceps brachii (green) and biceps brachii (blue) muscles in the anesthetized rat, 24h after 3-NP injection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256582"], "description"=>"<p>3-NP treatment resulted in (a) pyknosis and (b) swelling in the neuron, as well as cell organelle disintegration. Findings further revealed the presence of (c) mitochondrial cristae rupture, (d) axonal degeneration and (e) cavitation, (f) increased excitatory synaptic vesicles, and (g) golgi vesicles expansion. Moreover, (h) glial foot process edema and the nucleus of endothelial cells increased resulting in vascular stenosis in the CPu region (black arrows indicate the lesions).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["electron", "microscopy", "examinations", "3-np"], "article_id"=>831376, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transmission_electron_microscopy_examinations_after_3_NP_injection_/831376", "title"=>"Transmission electron microscopy examinations after 3-NP injection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256576"], "description"=>"<p>The results are expressed as the mean ± SD; <sup>†</sup><i>p</i> > 0.05, <sup>*</sup><i>p</i> < 0.05, <sup>**</sup><i>p</i> < 0.01 vs. control rats.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["gly", "gaba", "cpu", "gpi", "gpe", "stn", "hemidystonia", "rats", "3-np", "compared"], "article_id"=>831370, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentrations_of_Asp_Glu_Gly_and_GABA_in_the_CPu_a_GPi_b_GPe_c_and_STN_d_in_hemidystonia_rats_4_956_mol_3_NP_injected_Day_3_compared_to_the_control_rats_/831370", "title"=>"Concentrations of Asp, Glu, Gly and GABA in the CPu (a), GPi (b), GPe (c) and STN (d) in hemidystonia rats (4 μmol 3-NP injected, Day-3) compared to the control rats.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256585", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256586", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1256587"], "description"=>"<div><p>Objective</p><p>Secondary dystonia commonly presents as hemidystonia and is often refractory to current treatments. We aimed to establish an inducible rat model of hemidystonia utilizing 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) and to determine the pathophysiology of this model.</p> <p>Methods</p><p>Two different doses of 3-NP were stereotactically administered into the ipsilateral caudate putamen (CPu) of Wistar rats. Behavioral changes and alterations in the neurotransmitter levels in the basal ganglia were analyzed. We also performed an electromyogram, 7.0-T magnetic resonance imaging and transmission electron microscopy examination to determine the pathophysiology of the model.</p> <p>Results</p><p>In the CPu region, 3-NP produced mitochondrial cristae rupture, axonal degeneration, increased excitatory synaptic vesicles and necrosis. The extracellular concentrations of excitatory amino acids increased, whereas the inhibitory amino acids decreased in the CPu. Furthermore, an imbalance of neurotransmitters was found in other regions of the basal ganglia with the exception of the external globus pallidus. This study demonstrated that 3-NP administration results in CPu damage, and combined with a neurotransmitter imbalance in the basal ganglia, it produces specific neurobehavioral changes in rats. Right limb (contralateral side of CPu lesion) and trunk dystonic postures, shortened step length and ipsiversive dystonic posturing were observed in these rats. Furthermore, EMG recordings confirmed that co-contraction of the agonist and antagonist muscles could be seen for several seconds in right limbs.</p> <p>Conclusions</p><p>Stereotactic injection of 3-NP into the ipsilateral CPu of rats established an inducible model for hemidystonia. This effect might result from an imbalance of neurotransmitter levels, which induce dysfunctional activity of the basal ganglia mainly via the cortico-striato-GPi direct pathway. Symptoms in this model were present for 1 week. Activation of the cortico-striato-GPe indirect pathway and rebalance of neurotransmitters may lead to recovery. This rat model may be a suitable tool used to understand and further investigate the pathophysiology of dystonia.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hemidystonia", "induced", "3-nitropropionic"], "article_id"=>831379, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Huan-Guang Liu", "Yu Ma", "Da-Wei Meng", "An-Chao Yang", "Jian-Guo Zhang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079199.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Rat_Model_of_Hemidystonia_Induced_by_3_Nitropropionic_Acid_/831379", "title"=>"A Rat Model of Hemidystonia Induced by 3-Nitropropionic Acid", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-10-23 03:40:10"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[269, 466, 588, 697, 800, 896, 988, 1076, 1165, 1254, 1340, 1417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 440, 562, 666, 765, 856, 944, 1028, 1112, 1198, 1282, 1362, 1430]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[272, 472, 600, 713, 815, 911, 1004, 1094, 1185, 1273, 1358, 1441]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[281, 484, 611, 728, 835, 934, 1030, 1123, 1214, 1299, 1383, 1464]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[248, 441, 564, 668, 769, 859, 948, 1034, 1117, 1202, 1290, 1368, 1437]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Diagnostic medicine", "average_usage"=>[244, 425, 535, 636, 728, 814, 900, 982, 1063, 1139, 1221, 1296, 1361]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Radiology and imaging", "average_usage"=>[230, 403, 513, 618, 711, 806, 896, 985, 1065, 1141, 1225, 1296, 1360]}]}
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