Saponin 1 Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses NF-κB-Mediated Survival Signaling in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
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{"title"=>"Saponin 1 induces apoptosis and suppresses NF-κB-mediated survival signaling in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Juan", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56195061100"}, {"first_name"=>"Haifeng", "last_name"=>"Tang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403125296"}, {"first_name"=>"Yun", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"8242523300"}, {"first_name"=>"Chi", "last_name"=>"Tang", "scopus_author_id"=>"57198969794"}, {"first_name"=>"Bo", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199786374"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuangang", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"55874439800"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhenhui", "last_name"=>"Gao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55344818600"}, {"first_name"=>"Peng", "last_name"=>"Luo", "scopus_author_id"=>"35917531400"}, {"first_name"=>"Anan", "last_name"=>"Yin", "scopus_author_id"=>"55603942100"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoyang", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56042332100"}, {"first_name"=>"Guang", "last_name"=>"Cheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"35298546500"}, {"first_name"=>"Zhou", "last_name"=>"Fei", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005339154"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896730492", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0081258", "pui"=>"372425702", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24278406", "sgr"=>"84896730492"}, "id"=>"153244be-9e41-302d-9b79-d6c779c2627d", "abstract"=>"Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from Anemone taipaiensis, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells). Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at 24 h of 7.4 µg/ml in U251MG cells and 8.6 µg/ml in U87MG cells, respectively. Nuclear fluorescent staining and electron microscopy showed that saponin 1 caused characteristic apoptotic morphological changes in the GBM cell lines. Saponin 1-induced apoptosis was also verified by DNA ladder electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Additionally, immunocytochemistry and western blotting analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in the expression and nuclear location of NF-κB following saponin 1 treatment. Western blotting data indicated a significant decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family members,(e.g., survivin and XIAP) by saponin 1. Moreover, saponin 1 caused a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the GBM cell lines. These findings indicate that saponin 1 inhibits cell growth of GBM cells at least partially by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting survival signaling mediated by NF-κB. In addition, in vivo study also demonstrated an obvious inhibition of saponin 1 treatment on the tumor growth of U251MG and U87MG cells-produced xenograft tumors in nude mice. Given the minimal toxicities of saponin 1 in non-neoplastic astrocytes, our results suggest that saponin 1 exhibits significant in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for GBM.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/saponin-1-induces-apoptosis-suppresses-nf%CE%BAbmediated-survival-signaling-glioblastoma-multiforme-gbm", "reader_count"=>14, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292787"], "description"=>"<p>Saponin 1 significantly inhibited the cell viabilities of glioblastoma U87MG and U251MG cells in a dose concentration- and time-dependent manner, but did not affect the cell viability of primary cultured astrocytes, as compared to the vehicle-controls. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>860187, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MTT_assay_/860187", "title"=>"MTT assay.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292801"], "description"=>"<div><p>Saponin 1 is a triterpeniod saponin extracted from <i>Anemone taipaiensis</i>, a traditional Chinese medicine against rheumatism and phlebitis. It has also been shown to exhibit significant anti-tumor activity against human leukemia (HL-60 cells) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep-G2 cells). Herein we investigated the effect of saponin 1 in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) U251MG and U87MG cells. Saponin 1 induced significant growth inhibition in both glioblastoma cell lines, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at 24 h of 7.4 µg/ml in U251MG cells and 8.6 µg/ml in U87MG cells, respectively. Nuclear fluorescent staining and electron microscopy showed that saponin 1 caused characteristic apoptotic morphological changes in the GBM cell lines. Saponin 1-induced apoptosis was also verified by DNA ladder electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Additionally, immunocytochemistry and western blotting analyses revealed a time-dependent decrease in the expression and nuclear location of NF-κB following saponin 1 treatment. Western blotting data indicated a significant decreased expression of inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family members,(e.g., survivin and XIAP) by saponin 1. Moreover, saponin 1 caused a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and initiated apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and caspase-3 in the GBM cell lines. These findings indicate that saponin 1 inhibits cell growth of GBM cells at least partially by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting survival signaling mediated by NF-κB. In addition, <i>in vivo</i> study also demonstrated an obvious inhibition of saponin 1 treatment on the tumor growth of U251MG and U87MG cells-produced xenograft tumors in nude mice. Given the minimal toxicities of saponin 1 in non-neoplastic astrocytes, our results suggest that saponin 1 exhibits significant <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> anti-tumor efficacy and merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for GBM.</p> </div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["apoptosis", "suppresses", "glioblastoma", "multiforme"], "article_id"=>860201, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Saponin_1_Induces_Apoptosis_and_Suppresses_NF_954_B_Mediated_Survival_Signaling_in_Glioblastoma_Multiforme_GBM_/860201", "title"=>"Saponin 1 Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses NF-κB-Mediated Survival Signaling in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292799"], "description"=>"<p>Saponin 1 significantly inhibited tumor growth of U87MG and U251MG cells-produced xenograft tumors. A and B. Typical features of tumoral nodules in nude mice. C. Increase in tumor volume was makedly inhibited in saponin 1-treated nude mice. D. Tumor weight was markedly down-regulated in saponin 1-treated nude mice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anti-tumor", "saponin", "nude"], "article_id"=>860199, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_vivo_anti_tumor_effect_of_saponin_1_in_nude_mice_/860199", "title"=>"<i>In vivo</i> anti-tumor effect of saponin 1 in nude mice.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292794"], "description"=>"<p>Saponin 1 treatment resulted in a time-dependent decrease in the expressions of NF-κB p65, survivin and XIAP in glioblastoma cell lines. The ratio of Bcl-2/Bax rapidly diminished and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed. Endogenous expression of these proteins was not changed in primary cultured astrocytes exposed to saponin-1-treatment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blotting"], "article_id"=>860194, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Western_blotting_analysis_/860194", "title"=>"Western blotting analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292789"], "description"=>"<p>A, inverted microscopic observation. B, Nuclear fluorescent Hoechst 33342 staining. C, electron microscopic observation. D, electrophoresis of cellular DNA, lane 0, marker; lane 1-3, primary cultured astrocytes exposed to 7.4 μg/mL saponin-1 for 0, 24, and 72 hours; lane 4-6, U87MG cells exposed to 7.4 μg/mL saponin-1 for 0, 24, and 72 hours; lane 7-9, U251MG cells exposed to 7.4 μg/mL saponin-1 for 0, 24, and 72 hours.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["resulted", "apoptotic", "morphological", "glioblastoma", "u87mg", "u251mg"], "article_id"=>860189, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Saponin_1_treatment_resulted_in_significant_apoptotic_morphological_changes_in_glioblastoma_U87MG_and_U251MG_cells_/860189", "title"=>"Saponin 1 treatment resulted in significant apoptotic morphological changes in glioblastoma U87MG and U251MG cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292784"], "description"=>"<p>A and B: HPLC with different solvent conditions was carried out to establish the purity of saponin 1 on a Dionex P680 liquid chromatograph equipped with a UV170 UV/Vis detector using a YMC-Pack R&D ODS-A column (20×250 mm, YMC Co., Ltd). C: Chemical structure of saponin 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hplc", "saponin"], "article_id"=>860184, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chemical_structure_and_HPLC_analysis_of_saponin_1_/860184", "title"=>"Chemical structure and HPLC analysis of saponin 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292796"], "description"=>"<p>A. Nuclear expression of NF-κB p65 was obviously down-regulated in a time-dependent manner in both U87MG and U251MG cells. In contrast, it was not affected in primarily cultured astrocytes. B. statistical histogram.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["p65"], "article_id"=>860196, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Nuclear_NF_954_B_p65_expression_/860196", "title"=>"Nuclear NF-κB p65 expression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292793"], "description"=>"<p>A, representative immunocytochemical photos targeting NF-κB p65 in primary cultured astrocytes and glioblastoma cells. B, IRS scoring of intracellular expression of NF-κB p65. C, IRS scoring of nuclear NF-κB p65. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["p65-specific", "immunocytochemistry", "glioblastoma", "u87mg", "u251mg"], "article_id"=>860193, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_NF_954_B_p65_specific_immunocytochemistry_in_glioblastoma_U87MG_and_U251MG_cells_/860193", "title"=>"NF-κB p65-specific immunocytochemistry in glioblastoma U87MG and U251MG cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292791"], "description"=>"<p>Semiquantitative AnnexinV/PI data suggested that saponin 1 significantly induced apoptosis and necrosis in a time-dependent manner in glioblastoma U87MG and U251MG cells, but not in primary cultured astrocytes. </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>860191, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Juan Li", "Haifeng Tang", "Yun Zhang", "Chi Tang", "Bo Li", "Yuangang Wang", "Zhenhui Gao", "Peng Luo", "Anan Yin", "Xiaoyang Wang", "Guang Cheng", "Zhou Fei"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081258.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_AnnexinV_PI_based_flow_cytometry_/860191", "title"=>"AnnexinV/PI-based flow cytometry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:05:00"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2013-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2013-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[266, 468, 593, 703, 804, 903, 993, 1084, 1171, 1256, 1339, 1422, 1492]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Cell biology", "average_usage"=>[272, 472, 600, 713, 815, 911, 1004, 1094, 1185, 1273, 1358, 1441]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[264, 460, 584, 692, 794, 887, 978, 1067, 1154, 1241, 1328, 1408, 1474]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Oncology", "average_usage"=>[249, 468, 599, 718, 820, 920, 1008, 1093, 1181, 1281, 1357, 1444, 1517]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[265, 471, 604, 723, 827, 926, 1022, 1113, 1210, 1290, 1377, 1454, 1532]}]}
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