More than One Way of Being a Moa: Differences in Leg Bone Robustness Map Divergent Evolutionary Trajectories in Dinornithidae and Emeidae (Dinornithiformes)
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{"title"=>"More than one way of being a Moa: Differences in leg bone robustness map divergent evolutionary trajectories in Dinornithidae and Emeidae (Dinornithiformes)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Charlotte A.", "last_name"=>"Brassey", "scopus_author_id"=>"55365436300"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard N.", "last_name"=>"Holdaway", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006117314"}, {"first_name"=>"Abigail G.", "last_name"=>"Packham", "scopus_author_id"=>"56020013100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer", "last_name"=>"Anné", "scopus_author_id"=>"56020048800"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip L.", "last_name"=>"Manning", "scopus_author_id"=>"22433379300"}, {"first_name"=>"William I.", "last_name"=>"Sellers", "scopus_author_id"=>"35551702000"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84893161000", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0082668", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372231421", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"24367537", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84893161000"}, "id"=>"0c080385-c77e-3328-b34b-8430c39399ac", "abstract"=>"The extinct moa of New Zealand included three families (Megalapterygidae; Dinornithidae; Emeidae) of flightless palaeognath bird, ranging in mass from <15 kg to >200 kg. They are perceived to have evolved extremely robust leg bones, yet current estimates of body mass have very wide confidence intervals. Without reliable estimators of mass, the extent to which dinornithid and emeid hindlimbs were more robust than modern species remains unclear. Using the convex hull volumetric-based method on CT-scanned skeletons, we estimate the mass of a female Dinornis robustus (Dinornithidae) at 196 kg (range 155-245 kg) and of a female Pachyornis australis (Emeidae) as 50 kg (range 33-68 kg). Finite element analysis of CT-scanned femora and tibiotarsi of two moa and six species of modern palaeognath showed that P. australis experienced the lowest values for stress under all loading conditions, confirming it to be highly robust. In contrast, stress values in the femur of D. robustus were similar to those of modern flightless birds, whereas the tibiotarsus experienced the highest level of stress of any palaeognath. We consider that these two families of Dinornithiformes diverged in their biomechanical responses to selection for robustness and mobility, and exaggerated hindlimb strength was not the only successful evolutionary pathway.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/more-one-way-moa-differences-leg-bone-robustness-map-divergent-evolutionary-trajectories-dinornithid", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321641"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>a</i>) Medial view of femoral head, yellow arrows originate from the nodes to which force is applied. The direction of force is aligned parallel to the long axis of the bone, i.e. loading in compression. (<i>b</i>) Dorsal view of the proximal femoral epiphysis. Orange dot represents constrained control point, and is surrounded by 10 yellow dots representing the nodes to which torsion is applied via the kinematic coupling. (<i>c</i>) Ventral view of the distal femoral condyles. Orange squares represent nodes subject to encastre boundary conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["regimes", "finite"], "article_id"=>881549, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loading_regimes_for_finite_element_analysis_of_Dinornis_femur_/881549", "title"=>"Loading regimes for finite element analysis of <i>Dinornis</i> femur", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321655"], "description"=>"<p>Values represent maximum von Mises stress (Pa) recorded at the midshaft of the bone. For the two moa species, the range of von Mises stresses based on minimum and maximum body mass estimates (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668#pone-0082668-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>) is also presented.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["torsional"], "article_id"=>881563, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Finite_element_analysis_results_for_torsional_loading_/881563", "title"=>"Finite element analysis results for torsional loading.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321640"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>a</i>) Point cloud data for <i>C. casuarius</i> derived from LiDAR (light radar) scanning; (<i>b</i>) convex hulls of each body segment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["convex", "hulling"], "article_id"=>881548, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_convex_hulling_process_/881548", "title"=>"The convex hulling process", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321654"], "description"=>"<p><i>cvol</i>, mean convex hull; <i>cvol</i><sub>max</sub>, maximum convex hull volume with sternum positioned ventrally; <i>cvol</i><sub>min</sub>, minimum convex hull volume with sternum positioned dorsally. Bold values indicate minimum and maximum body mass values inserted into FE sensitivity analysis.<sup></sup></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "moa"], "article_id"=>881562, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Body_mass_estimates_of_moa_individuals_/881562", "title"=>"Body mass estimates of moa individuals.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321649"], "description"=>"<p><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668#pone-0082668-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. For <i>Dromaius novaehollandiae</i> and <i>Rhea americana</i>, body mass was recorded directly from the carcass. <i>F</i>, total force applied to the finite element model in Newtons.<sup></sup> Body mass estimated for the finite element analysis specimens using the same species-specific regressions of known body mass against a linear metric from the hind limb, as in </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["specimen", "sources"], "article_id"=>881557, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Finite_element_analysis_specimen_list_and_sources_of_body_mass_/881557", "title"=>"Finite element analysis specimen list and sources of body mass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321648"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>a</i>) <i>Dinornis</i> femur loaded in compression (0° from the longest principal axis) experienced a significant degree of bending due to off-axis application of force on the femoral head. (<i>b</i>) <i>Dinornis</i> tibiotarsus experienced lower values of σ<sub>vm</sub> under compression, and underwent less bending due to application of forces on the intercondylar eminence. (<i>c</i>) <i>Pachyornis</i> tibiotarsus loaded in bending (90° from the longest principal axis). σ<sub>vm</sub> increases towards the fixed end of the beam, with localised areas of stress related to variations in cortical wall thickness. (<i>d</i>) Slice through midshaft of <i>c.</i> Values of σ<sub>vm</sub> are highest at the extreme compressional and tensional cortices with a neutral axis of lowest stress values running between. (<i>e</i>) Slice through midshaft of <i>Pachyornis</i> femur loaded in torsion. Stress values increase radially from the endosteal to periosteal surface, with the highest stresses located in regions where cortical wall thickness is at a minimum. For (<i>d</i>) and (<i>e</i>), bone orientation is indicated by coordinate system (a–p, anteroposterior; m–l, mediolateral).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["von", "mises", "moa", "finite"], "article_id"=>881556, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_Von_Mises_stress_within_moa_finite_element_models_/881556", "title"=>"The distribution of Von Mises stress within moa finite element models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321645"], "description"=>"<p>Combined compression-bending results for the femur (a) and tibiotarsus (b). Values represent maximum von Mises stress (Pa) recorded at the midshaft of the bone. Pink and blue shaded areas represent the range of stress values estimated by finite element analysis when incorporating maximum and minimum values for body mass in <i>D. robustus</i> and <i>P. australis</i> respectively. Area enclosed by dark blue box is expanded in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668#pone-0082668-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 6</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>881553, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Finite_element_analysis_results_/881553", "title"=>"Finite element analysis results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321643"], "description"=>"<p>LR, linear regression; SMA, standardized major axis regression; MA, major axis regression; LRO, linear regression forced through the origin.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["convex", "hull", "extant"], "article_id"=>881551, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_relationship_between_convex_hull_volume_and_literature_values_for_mass_in_extant_ratites_/881551", "title"=>"The relationship between convex hull volume and literature values for mass in extant ratites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321642"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>a</i>) <i>Dinornis robustus</i> (S.34088/89) reconstruction of convex hulls; (<i>b</i>) <i>Pachyornis australis</i> (S.27896) (<i>a</i> and <i>b</i> are to the same scale); (<i>c</i>) and (<i>d</i>) show different positions of the sternum in <i>D. robustus</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["convex"], "article_id"=>881550, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Moa_convex_hulls_/881550", "title"=>"Moa convex hulls", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321651"], "description"=>"<p><i>M</i><sub>b</sub>) was estimated for the convex hull individuals by first generating species-specific least squares regressions of known body mass against a linear metric from the hind limb as reported in the literature.<sup></sup> Body mass (</p><p><i>Dromaius novaehollandiae</i> femoral length against body mass derived from carcasses of known body mass from the University of Manchester.<sup></sup> Regression equation of </p><p><i>Rhea spp.</i> tibiotarsal length against body mass generated from previously published raw data and one carcass from the University of Manchester.<sup></sup> Regression equation of </p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["hull", "specimen", "sources"], "article_id"=>881559, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Convex_hull_specimen_list_and_sources_of_body_mass_/881559", "title"=>"Convex hull specimen list and sources of body mass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321652"], "description"=>"<p>Moa body mass estimates (kg) and 95%CI based derived from palaeognath-specific regressions of femoral and tibiotarsal metrics published by Cubo and Casinos <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668#pone.0082668-Cubo1\" target=\"_blank\">[24]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["estimates", "derived", "palaeognath-specific", "regressions", "femoral", "tibiotarsal", "metrics", "published", "cubo", "casinos"], "article_id"=>881560, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Moa_body_mass_estimates_kg_and_95_CI_based_derived_from_palaeognath_specific_regressions_of_femoral_and_tibiotarsal_metrics_published_by_Cubo_and_Casinos_24_/881560", "title"=>"Moa body mass estimates (kg) and 95%CI based derived from palaeognath-specific regressions of femoral and tibiotarsal metrics published by Cubo and Casinos [24].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321650"], "description"=>"<p><sup></sup> Trunk values include minimum and maximum volumes defined by shifting the sternum dorsoventrally. Segment values consist of the sum total of left and right elements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["convex", "hull", "volumes"], "article_id"=>881558, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Moa_convex_hull_volumes_and_body_segment_volumes_/881558", "title"=>"Moa convex hull volumes and body segment volumes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1321646"], "description"=>"<p>Combined compression-bending of the tibiotarsus between 0–20° from vertical. Values represent maximum von Mises stress (Pa) recorded at the midshaft of the bone. Legend as in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668#pone-0082668-g005\" target=\"_blank\">figure 5</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>[], "article_id"=>881554, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Earth and Environmental Sciences"], "users"=>["Charlotte A. Brassey", "Richard N. Holdaway", "Abigail G. Packham", "Jennifer Anné", "Philip L. Manning", "William I. Sellers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082668.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_inset_of_Figure_5_/881554", "title"=>"(inset of Figure 5)", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-12-18 03:47:12"}

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Relative Metric

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