An Assessment of Health Risks and Mortality from Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Chinese Restaurants and Bars
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{"title"=>"An assessment of health risks and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke in Chinese restaurants and bars", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ruiling", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"37033824300"}, {"first_name"=>"Yuan", "last_name"=>"Jiang", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404833542"}, {"first_name"=>"Qiang", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"55642417000"}, {"first_name"=>"S. Katharine", "last_name"=>"Hammond", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102503475"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24416289", "sgr"=>"84897451488", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0084811", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897451488", "pui"=>"372730109", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"9d8bd8fe-9f28-3baa-a354-7838ab30dc9f", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: Smoking is generally not regulated in restaurants or bars in China, or the restrictions are not fully implemented if there are any, while the related hazard health effects are not recognized by the majority of the Chinese population.\\n\\nOBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the excess health risks and mortality attributed to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in restaurants and bars for both servers and patrons to provide necessary evidence for advancing tobacco control in this microenvironment.\\n\\nMETHODS: Two approaches were used for the assessment. One is a continuous approach based on existing field measurements and Repace and Lowrey's dose-response model, and the other is a categorical approach based on exposure or not and epidemiological studies.\\n\\nRESULTS: Based on the continuous approach, servers were estimated to have a lifetime excess risk (LER) of lung cancer death (LCD) of 730 to 1,831×10(-6) for working five days a week for 45 years in smoking restaurants and 1,862 to 8,136×10(-6) in smoking bars, and patrons could have a LER of LCD of 47 to 117×10(-6) due to visiting smoking restaurants for an average of 13 minutes a day for 60 years, and 119 to 522×10(-6) due to visiting smoking bars. The categorical approach estimated that SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone caused 84 LCD and 57 ischemic heart disease (IHD) deaths among nonsmoking servers and 1,2419 LCDs and 1,689 IHD deaths among the nonsmoking patron population.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: SHS exposure in restaurants and bars alone can impose high lifetime excess risks of lung cancer death and ischemic heart disease deaths to both servers and patrons, and can cause a significant number of deaths each year in China. These health risks and deaths can be prevented by banning smoking in restaurants and bars and effectively implementing these smoking bans.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/assessment-health-risks-mortality-exposure-secondhand-smoke-chinese-restaurants-bars", "reader_count"=>9, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Student > Master"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1342283"], "description"=>"<p>Note: <sup>a</sup>the Chinese population was 1,299,880,000, reported by the National Bureau of Statistics; the population by gender and age groups were estimated from the WHO WPR-B dataset with a proportion of 82% (total Chinese population/total WHO WPR-B population in 2004) because they were not available from the bureau’s datasets; The numbers in each of the first four columns may not add up to the corresponding subtotals or totals due to rounding up during calculation.</p><p><sup>b</sup> LCD, lung cancer deaths, estimated from the WHO WPR-B dataset;</p><p><sup>c</sup> IHD, ischaemic heart disease death, estimated from the WHO WPR-B dataset;</p><p><sup>d,e</sup> data from a national survey in 1984 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811#pone.0084811-Weng1\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>, in 1996 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811#pone.0084811-Chen1\" target=\"_blank\">[35]</a> and in 2002 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811#pone.0084811-Yang4\" target=\"_blank\">[38]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "Environmental health", "tobacco control", "Pulmonology", "Smoking related disorders", "smoking", "prevalence", "shs", "1996", "2002"], "article_id"=>897094, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Ruiling Liu", "Yuan Jiang", "Qiang Li", "S. Katharine Hammond"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Current_smoking_prevalence_and_SHS_exposure_prevalence_by_gender_and_age_in_1984_1996_and_2002_in_China_/897094", "title"=>"Current smoking prevalence and SHS exposure prevalence by gender and age in 1984, 1996 and 2002 in China.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:06:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1342284"], "description"=>"<p>Note: <sup>a</sup>Range of mean concentrations were estimated from field measurements in restaurants and bars in five Chinese cities in 2007 and in Beijing 2006;</p><p><sup>b</sup> breathing rates of different levels of activities specific for Chinese populations were not available and they were assumed according to recommendations by U.S. EPA <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811#pone.0084811-US1\" target=\"_blank\">[28]</a>;</p><p><sup>c</sup> servers’ exposure to SHS at work were assumed to occur mostly in four hours during peak patronage time on each of the five working days; patrons’ exposure time was based on the report that people spend an average of 13 minutes (0.22 hours) a day in restaurants and bars every day <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811#pone.0084811-NationalBureauofStatisticsof2\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>;</p><p><sup>d</sup> the lifetime attributable risk was calculated using the dose-response relationship estimated by Repace and Lowrey <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811#pone.0084811-Repace2\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a> (Eq.1).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "Environmental health", "tobacco control", "Pulmonology", "Smoking related disorders", "excess", "cancer", "deaths", "chinese", "restaurants"], "article_id"=>897095, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Ruiling Liu", "Yuan Jiang", "Qiang Li", "S. Katharine Hammond"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_of_lifetime_excess_risk_of_lung_cancer_deaths_based_on_the_continuous_approach_in_Chinese_restaurants_and_bars_/897095", "title"=>"Estimates of lifetime excess risk of lung cancer deaths based on the continuous approach in Chinese restaurants and bars.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:06:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1342285"], "description"=>"<p>Note: SD standard deviation.</p><p><sup>a</sup> indoor PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations were reported, not adjusted by outdoor PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations;</p><p><sup>b</sup> 18 restaurants with interventions on training venue staff how to implement smoke-free policies, and the other 16 venues without any interventions.</p><p><sup>c</sup> 5 restaurants and 15 entertainment venues.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "Environmental health", "tobacco control", "Pulmonology", "Smoking related disorders", "shs", "concentrations", "indicated", "restaurants", "bars", "chinese"], "article_id"=>897096, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Ruiling Liu", "Yuan Jiang", "Qiang Li", "S. Katharine Hammond"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_SHS_concentrations_indicated_by_PM_2_5_in_restaurants_and_bars_in_some_Chinese_cities_181_g_m_3_/897096", "title"=>"Measurements of SHS concentrations indicated by PM<sub>2.5</sub> in restaurants and bars in some Chinese cities, µg/m<sup>3</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:06:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1342286"], "description"=>"<p>Sensitivity analysis of percentage of overall SHS time occurred in restaurants and bars for workers and patrons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "Environmental health", "tobacco control", "Pulmonology", "Smoking related disorders", "shs", "occurred", "restaurants", "bars", "workers"], "article_id"=>897097, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Ruiling Liu", "Yuan Jiang", "Qiang Li", "S. Katharine Hammond"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sensitivity_analysis_of_percentage_of_overall_SHS_time_occurred_in_restaurants_and_bars_for_workers_and_patrons_/897097", "title"=>"Sensitivity analysis of percentage of overall SHS time occurred in restaurants and bars for workers and patrons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:06:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1342287"], "description"=>"<p>Note: SHS exposure prevalence is the proportion of nonsmokers exposed to SHS;</p><p><sup>a</sup> people were assumed to be exposed to SHS in residences only during waking hours;</p><p><sup>b</sup> for servers, the work place was restaurants and bars, and 95% of Chinese restaurants and bars were assumed to allow smoking;</p><p><sup>c</sup> indoor public places did not include restaurants and bars in this analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "Environmental health", "tobacco control", "Pulmonology", "Smoking related disorders", "shs", "happening", "types", "environments", "servers", "patrons"], "article_id"=>897098, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Ruiling Liu", "Yuan Jiang", "Qiang Li", "S. Katharine Hammond"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_percentage_of_total_SHS_exposure_happening_in_different_types_of_environments_for_restaurant_and_bar_servers_and_patrons_by_gender_/897098", "title"=>"Estimated percentage of total SHS exposure happening in different types of environments for restaurant and bar servers and patrons by gender.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:06:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1342288"], "description"=>"<p>Note: LCD: lung cancer death; IHD: ischaemic heart disease.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Public health", "Environmental health", "tobacco control", "Pulmonology", "Smoking related disorders", "numbers", "cancer", "ischaemic", "shs", "restaurants", "bars", "excess"], "article_id"=>897099, "categories"=>["Medicine"], "users"=>["Ruiling Liu", "Yuan Jiang", "Qiang Li", "S. Katharine Hammond"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0084811.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_numbers_of_lung_cancer_death_and_ischaemic_heart_disease_death_due_to_SHS_exposure_in_restaurants_and_bars_based_on_excess_risk_assessment_methods_/897099", "title"=>"Estimated numbers of lung cancer death and ischaemic heart disease death due to SHS exposure in restaurants and bars based on excess risk assessment methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-08 04:06:27"}

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Relative Metric

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