The Emotional Toll of Hell: Cross-National and Experimental Evidence for the Negative Well-Being Effects of Hell Beliefs
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{"title"=>"The emotional toll of hell: Cross-national and experimental evidence for the negative well-being effects of hell beliefs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Azim F.", "last_name"=>"Shariff", "scopus_author_id"=>"20436715000"}, {"first_name"=>"Lara B.", "last_name"=>"Aknin", "scopus_author_id"=>"23984324100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84899830945", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0085251", "pui"=>"373020737", "pmid"=>"24465514", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899830945", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"f1da58fb-773a-36e8-9b65-e6885d00375b", "abstract"=>"Though beliefs in Heaven and Hell are related, they are associated with different personality characteristics and social phenomena. Here we present three studies measuring Heaven and Hell beliefs’ associations with and impact on subjective well-being. We find that a belief in Heaven is consistently associated with greater happiness and life satisfaction while a belief in Hell is associated with lower happiness and life satisfaction at the national (Study 1) and individual (Study 2) level. An experimental priming study (Study 3) suggests that these differences are mainly driven by the negative emotional impact of Hell beliefs. Possible cultural evolutionary explanations for the persistence of such a distressing religious concept are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (journal abstract)", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/emotional-toll-hell-crossnational-experimental-evidence-negative-wellbeing-effects-hell-beliefs", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Psychology"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>17}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1356190"], "description"=>"<p>R<sup>2</sup> = .35.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "Religion and spirituality", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "religion", "Psychological anthropology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cross culture (sociology)", "experiences", "higher", "believes", "compared"], "article_id"=>908665, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Lara B. Aknin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085251.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_Experiences_Well_being_as_a_function_of_how_much_higher_the_proportion_of_a_nation_that_believes_in_Heaven_is_compared_to_the_proportion_that_believes_in_Hell_/908665", "title"=>"Daily Experiences Well-being as a function of how much higher the proportion of a nation that believes in Heaven is compared to the proportion that believes in Hell.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 03:49:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1356191"], "description"=>"<p>Descriptive statistics for key variables in Study 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "Religion and spirituality", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "religion", "Psychological anthropology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cross culture (sociology)", "variables"], "article_id"=>908666, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Lara B. Aknin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085251.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_statistics_for_key_variables_in_Study_1_/908666", "title"=>"Descriptive statistics for key variables in Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 03:49:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1356192"], "description"=>"<p><i>denotes p<.001.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "Religion and spirituality", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "religion", "Psychological anthropology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cross culture (sociology)", "subjective", "beliefs"], "article_id"=>908667, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Lara B. Aknin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085251.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicting_individual_subjective_well_being_from_heaven_and_hell_beliefs_in_Study_2_/908667", "title"=>"Predicting individual subjective well-being from heaven and hell beliefs in Study 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 03:49:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1356193"], "description"=>"<p><i>denotes p<.05, ** denotes p<.01, *** denotes p<.001.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "Religion and spirituality", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "religion", "Psychological anthropology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cross culture (sociology)", "experiences", "beliefs"], "article_id"=>908668, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Lara B. Aknin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085251.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predicting_national_happiness_rank_and_daily_experiences_of_well_being_from_heaven_and_hell_beliefs_in_Study_1_/908668", "title"=>"Predicting national happiness rank and daily experiences of well-being from heaven and hell beliefs in Study 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 03:49:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1356194"], "description"=>"<p>Note: Means with different superscript values (i.e. <sup>a</sup> and <sup>b</sup>) are significantly different from one another at the <i>p</i><.05 level. Assumptions of homogeneity of variance were violated and corrected for when comparing the Control versus Hell condition for Negative Emotion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "Religion and spirituality", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "religion", "Psychological anthropology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cross culture (sociology)", "deviations"], "article_id"=>908669, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Lara B. Aknin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085251.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Means_and_standard_deviations_for_the_experimental_conditions_in_Study_3_/908669", "title"=>"Means and standard deviations for the experimental conditions in Study 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 03:49:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1356195"], "description"=>"<div><p>Though beliefs in Heaven and Hell are related, they are associated with different personality characteristics and social phenomena. Here we present three studies measuring Heaven and Hell beliefs' associations with and impact on subjective well-being. We find that a belief in Heaven is consistently associated with greater happiness and life satisfaction while a belief in Hell is associated with lower happiness and life satisfaction at the national (Study 1) and individual (Study 2) level. An experimental priming study (Study 3) suggests that these differences are mainly driven by the negative emotional impact of Hell beliefs. Possible cultural evolutionary explanations for the persistence of such a distressing religious concept are discussed.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Mental health", "psychology", "behavior", "emotions", "Experimental psychology", "Social psychology", "Non-clinical medicine", "Health care policy", "Quality of life", "Religion and spirituality", "anthropology", "Cultural anthropology", "religion", "Psychological anthropology", "Sociology", "culture", "Cross culture (sociology)", "cross-national"], "article_id"=>908670, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Azim F. Shariff", "Lara B. Aknin"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085251", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Emotional_Toll_of_Hell_Cross_National_and_Experimental_Evidence_for_the_Negative_Well_Being_Effects_of_Hell_Beliefs_/908670", "title"=>"The Emotional Toll of Hell: Cross-National and Experimental Evidence for the Negative Well-Being Effects of Hell Beliefs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-01-22 03:49:36"}

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