A Review of the Study Designs and Statistical Methods Used in the Determination of Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Cohorts: 2002–2011
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{"title"=>"A review of the study designs and statistical methods used in the determination of predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected cohorts: 2002-2011", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kennedy N.", "last_name"=>"Otwombe", "scopus_author_id"=>"8923896500"}, {"first_name"=>"Max", "last_name"=>"Petzold", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003628893"}, {"first_name"=>"Neil", "last_name"=>"Martinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"13907655800"}, {"first_name"=>"Tobias", "last_name"=>"Chirwa", "scopus_author_id"=>"24075268000"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84896817265", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087356", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"24498313", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896817265", "pui"=>"372485653"}, "id"=>"7dbc8a0c-1f9a-3b8d-809b-4423555482fe", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Research in the predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people has widely been reported in literature. Making an informed decision requires understanding the methods used.\\n\\nOBJECTIVES: We present a review on study designs, statistical methods and their appropriateness in original articles reporting on predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people between January 2002 and December 2011. Statistical methods were compared between 2002-2006 and 2007-2011. Time-to-event analysis techniques were considered appropriate.\\n\\nDATA SOURCES: Pubmed/Medline.\\n\\nSTUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Original English-language articles were abstracted. Letters to the editor, editorials, reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, case reports and any other ineligible articles were excluded.\\n\\nRESULTS: A total of 189 studies were identified (n = 91 in 2002-2006 and n = 98 in 2007-2011) out of which 130 (69%) were prospective and 56 (30%) were retrospective. One hundred and eighty-two (96%) studies described their sample using descriptive statistics while 32 (17%) made comparisons using t-tests. Kaplan-Meier methods for time-to-event analysis were commonly used in the earlier period (n = 69, 76% vs. n = 53, 54%, p = 0.002). Predictors of mortality in the two periods were commonly determined using Cox regression analysis (n = 67, 75% vs. n = 63, 64%, p = 0.12). Only 7 (4%) used advanced survival analysis methods of Cox regression analysis with frailty in which 6 (3%) were used in the later period. Thirty-two (17%) used logistic regression while 8 (4%) used other methods. There were significantly more articles from the first period using appropriate methods compared to the second (n = 80, 88% vs. n = 69, 70%, p-value = 0.003).\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Descriptive statistics and survival analysis techniques remain the most common methods of analysis in publications on predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected cohorts while prospective research designs are favoured. Sophisticated techniques of time-dependent Cox regression and Cox regression with frailty are scarce. This motivates for more training in the use of advanced time-to-event methods.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/review-study-designs-statistical-methods-used-determination-predictors-allcause-mortality-hivinfecte-2", "reader_count"=>34, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>18, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>18}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1374064"], "description"=>"<p>Types of study designs and sample sizes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["statistics", "Biostatistics", "Statistical methods", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Prospective studies", "Retrospective studies", "Systematic reviews", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV epidemiology", "designs"], "article_id"=>924378, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kennedy N. Otwombe", "Max Petzold", "Neil Martinson", "Tobias Chirwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087356.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Types_of_study_designs_and_sample_sizes_/924378", "title"=>"Types of study designs and sample sizes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 04:04:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1374067"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Research in the predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people has widely been reported in literature. Making an informed decision requires understanding the methods used.</p><p>Objectives</p><p>We present a review on study designs, statistical methods and their appropriateness in original articles reporting on predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected people between January 2002 and December 2011. Statistical methods were compared between 2002–2006 and 2007–2011. Time-to-event analysis techniques were considered appropriate.</p><p>Data Sources</p><p>Pubmed/Medline.</p><p>Study Eligibility Criteria</p><p>Original English-language articles were abstracted. Letters to the editor, editorials, reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, case reports and any other ineligible articles were excluded.</p><p>Results</p><p>A total of 189 studies were identified (n = 91 in 2002–2006 and n = 98 in 2007–2011) out of which 130 (69%) were prospective and 56 (30%) were retrospective. One hundred and eighty-two (96%) studies described their sample using descriptive statistics while 32 (17%) made comparisons using t-tests. Kaplan-Meier methods for time-to-event analysis were commonly used in the earlier period (n = 69, 76% vs. n = 53, 54%, p = 0.002). Predictors of mortality in the two periods were commonly determined using Cox regression analysis (n = 67, 75% vs. n = 63, 64%, p = 0.12). Only 7 (4%) used advanced survival analysis methods of Cox regression analysis with frailty in which 6 (3%) were used in the later period. Thirty-two (17%) used logistic regression while 8 (4%) used other methods. There were significantly more articles from the first period using appropriate methods compared to the second (n = 80, 88% vs. n = 69, 70%, p-value = 0.003).</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Descriptive statistics and survival analysis techniques remain the most common methods of analysis in publications on predictors of all-cause mortality in HIV-infected cohorts while prospective research designs are favoured. Sophisticated techniques of time-dependent Cox regression and Cox regression with frailty are scarce. This motivates for more training in the use of advanced time-to-event methods.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["statistics", "Biostatistics", "Statistical methods", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Prospective studies", "Retrospective studies", "Systematic reviews", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV epidemiology", "designs", "methods", "predictors", "all-cause", "hiv-infected"], "article_id"=>924381, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kennedy N. Otwombe", "Max Petzold", "Neil Martinson", "Tobias Chirwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087356", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Review_of_the_Study_Designs_and_Statistical_Methods_Used_in_the_Determination_of_Predictors_of_All_Cause_Mortality_in_HIV_Infected_Cohorts_2002_8211_2011_/924381", "title"=>"A Review of the Study Designs and Statistical Methods Used in the Determination of Predictors of All-Cause Mortality in HIV-Infected Cohorts: 2002–2011", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 04:04:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1374066"], "description"=>"<p><b>Note:</b> Totals in this table do not add up to the number of articles because some articles used more than one method in their analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["statistics", "Biostatistics", "Statistical methods", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Prospective studies", "Retrospective studies", "Systematic reviews", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV epidemiology", "methods", "predictors"], "article_id"=>924380, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kennedy N. Otwombe", "Max Petzold", "Neil Martinson", "Tobias Chirwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087356.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Appropriateness_of_statistical_methods_for_predictors_of_mortality_/924380", "title"=>"Appropriateness of statistical methods for predictors of mortality.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 04:04:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1374063"], "description"=>"#<p>Refers to logistic, conditional logistic, generalized estimating equations and Poisson regression methods.</p>¶<p>Refers to Student t-test, Chi-Square and Fishers Exact test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskall-Wallis, Wilcoxon, simple ANOVA and correlation.</p>*<p>Refers to Logistic Regression, Conditional Logistic Regression, Poisson Regression and Survival Analysis and Epidemiologic statistics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["statistics", "Biostatistics", "Statistical methods", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Prospective studies", "Retrospective studies", "Systematic reviews", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV epidemiology"], "article_id"=>924377, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kennedy N. Otwombe", "Max Petzold", "Neil Martinson", "Tobias Chirwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087356.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_statistical_methods_/924377", "title"=>"Summary of statistical methods.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 04:04:42"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1374061"], "description"=>"<p>Flow chart showing the selection process of articles and the number in each period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["statistics", "Biostatistics", "Statistical methods", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Prospective studies", "Retrospective studies", "Systematic reviews", "Infectious diseases", "Viral diseases", "hiv", "HIV epidemiology", "articles"], "article_id"=>924375, "categories"=>["Mathematics", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Kennedy N. Otwombe", "Max Petzold", "Neil Martinson", "Tobias Chirwa"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087356.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_chart_showing_the_selection_process_of_articles_and_the_number_in_each_period_/924375", "title"=>"Flow chart showing the selection process of articles and the number in each period.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-03 04:04:42"}
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PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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