Mode of Delivery and Offspring Body Mass Index, Overweight and Obesity in Adult Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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{"title"=>"Mode of delivery and offspring body mass index, overweight and obesity in adult life: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Karthik", "last_name"=>"Darmasseelane", "scopus_author_id"=>"56071256500"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew J.", "last_name"=>"Hyde", "scopus_author_id"=>"24179071100"}, {"first_name"=>"Shalini", "last_name"=>"Santhakumaran", "scopus_author_id"=>"37113131800"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris", "last_name"=>"Gale", "scopus_author_id"=>"56365905200"}, {"first_name"=>"Neena", "last_name"=>"Modi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005469450"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"372629982", "sgr"=>"84896341388", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"24586295", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84896341388", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0087896", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"85fdeb16-5bda-3d6a-b0e0-7680856555e9", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that mode of delivery, a potentially powerful influence upon long-term health, may affect later life body mass index (BMI). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of Caesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery (VD) on offspring BMI, overweight (BMI>25) and obesity (BMI>30) in adulthood. Secondary outcomes were subgroup analyses by gender and type of CS (in-labour/emergency, pre-labour/elective). METHODS: Using a predefined search strategy, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched for any article published before 31(st) March 2012, along with references of any studies deemed relevant. Studies were selected if they reported birth characteristics and long-term offspring follow-up into adulthood. Aggregate data from relevant studies were extracted onto a pre-piloted data table. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out in RevMan5. Results are illustrated using forest plots and funnel plots, and presented as mean differences or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies were identified through the search, and 15 studies with a combined population of 163,796 [corrected] were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Comparing all CS to VD in pooled-gender unadjusted analyses, mean BMI difference was 0.44 kg.m(-2) (0.17, 0.72; p = 0.002), OR for incidence of overweight was 1.26 (1.16, 1.38; p<0.00001) and OR for incidence of obesity was 1.22 (1.05, 1.42; p = 0.01). Heterogeneity was low in all primary analyses. Similar results were found in gender-specific subgroup analyses. Subgroup analyses comparing type of CS to VD showed no significant impact on any outcome. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between CS and increased offspring BMI, overweight and obesity in adulthood. Given the rising CS rate worldwide there is a need to determine whether this is causal, or reflective of confounding influences. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: An a priori protocol was registered on PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001851).", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/mode-delivery-offspring-body-mass-index-overweight-obesity-adult-life-systematic-review-metaanalysis-1", "reader_count"=>97, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>20, "Other"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>20, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. 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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399367"], "description"=>"<p><b>PC:</b> Prospective Cohort Study; <b>PBC:</b> Population-Based Cohort Study; <b>RC:</b> Retrospective Cohort Study; <b>NOS:</b> Modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale Score; <b>M:</b> Male; <b>F:</b> Female; <b>VD:</b> Vaginal Delivery; <b>CS:</b> Caesarean Section; <b>IL-CS:</b> Emergency/In-Labour Caesarean Section; <b>PL-CS:</b> Elective/Pre-Labour Caesarean Section; <b>MoD:</b> Mode of Delivery; <b>BMI:</b> Body Mass Index; <b>SES:</b> Socio-Economic Status; <b>ACONF:</b> Aberdeen Children of the 1950s; <b>VLBWA:</b> Very Low Birth Weight Adults</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Systematic reviews", "nutrition", "obesity", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "included", "meta-analysis", "examining", "offspring", "bmi"], "article_id"=>945256, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Karthik Darmasseelane", "Matthew J. Hyde", "Shalini Santhakumaran", "Chris Gale", "Neena Modi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Studies_included_in_this_meta_analysis_examining_the_association_between_mode_of_delivery_and_offspring_BMI_in_adulthood_/945256", "title"=>"Studies included in this meta-analysis examining the association between mode of delivery and offspring BMI in adulthood.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 03:38:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399368"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of all meta-analysis results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Systematic reviews", "nutrition", "obesity", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "meta-analysis"], "article_id"=>945257, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Karthik Darmasseelane", "Matthew J. Hyde", "Shalini Santhakumaran", "Chris Gale", "Neena Modi"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_all_meta_analysis_results_/945257", "title"=>"Summary of all meta-analysis results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 03:38:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399370", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399371", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399372", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399373", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399374", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399375", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399376", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399377", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399378", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399379", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399380", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399381", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399382", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1399383"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>It has been suggested that mode of delivery, a potentially powerful influence upon long-term health, may affect later life body mass index (BMI). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of Caesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery (VD) on offspring BMI, overweight (BMI>25) and obesity (BMI>30) in adulthood. Secondary outcomes were subgroup analyses by gender and type of CS (in-labour/emergency, pre-labour/elective).</p><p>Methods</p><p>Using a predefined search strategy, Pubmed, Google Scholar and Web of Science were searched for any article published before 31<sup>st</sup> March 2012, along with references of any studies deemed relevant. Studies were selected if they reported birth characteristics and long-term offspring follow-up into adulthood. Aggregate data from relevant studies were extracted onto a pre-piloted data table. A random-effects meta-analysis was carried out in RevMan5. Results are illustrated using forest plots and funnel plots, and presented as mean differences or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals.</p><p>Results</p><p>Thirty-five studies were identified through the search, and 15 studies with a combined population of 163,753 were suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Comparing all CS to VD in pooled-gender unadjusted analyses, mean BMI difference was 0·44 kg·m<sup>-2</sup> (0·17, 0·72; <i>p</i> = 0·002), OR for incidence of overweight was 1·26 (1·16, 1·38; <i>p</i><0·00001) and OR for incidence of obesity was 1·22 (1·05, 1·42; <i>p = </i>0·01). Heterogeneity was low in all primary analyses. Similar results were found in gender-specific subgroup analyses. Subgroup analyses comparing type of CS to VD showed no significant impact on any outcome.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>There is a strong association between CS and increased offspring BMI, overweight and obesity in adulthood. Given the rising CS rate worldwide there is a need to determine whether this is causal, or reflective of confounding influences.</p><p>Systematic review registration</p><p>An <i>a priori</i> protocol was registered on PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42011001851)</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Population biology", "epidemiology", "Social epidemiology", "Clinical research design", "meta-analyses", "Systematic reviews", "nutrition", "obesity", "Obstetrics and gynecology", "Labor and delivery", "pediatrics", "Neonatology", "offspring", "overweight", "systematic"], "article_id"=>945259, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine"], "users"=>["Karthik Darmasseelane", "Matthew J. Hyde", "Shalini Santhakumaran", "Chris Gale", "Neena Modi"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087896.s014"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>29, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mode_of_Delivery_and_Offspring_Body_Mass_Index_Overweight_and_Obesity_in_Adult_Life_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis_/945259", "title"=>"Mode of Delivery and Offspring Body Mass Index, Overweight and Obesity in Adult Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-02-26 03:38:18"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[278]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[302]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Population groupings", "average_usage"=>[300]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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