The Plastered Skulls from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Site of Yiftahel (Israel) – A Computed Tomography-Based Analysis
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{"title"=>"The plastered skulls from the pre-pottery neolithic B site of Yiftahel (Israel) - A computed tomography-based analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Viviane", "last_name"=>"Slon", "scopus_author_id"=>"52264642100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rachel", "last_name"=>"Sarig", "scopus_author_id"=>"56685214600"}, {"first_name"=>"Israel", "last_name"=>"Hershkovitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004032045"}, {"first_name"=>"Hamoudi", "last_name"=>"Khalaily", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505828507"}, {"first_name"=>"Ianir", "last_name"=>"Milevski", "scopus_author_id"=>"26026650900"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24586625", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0089242", "sgr"=>"84895861242", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84895861242", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372565780"}, "id"=>"438c9948-80e3-3b90-853b-a7ea2e9036fd", "abstract"=>"Three plastered skulls, dating to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, were found at the site of Yiftahel, in the Lower Galilee (Israel). The skulls underwent refitting and restoration processes, details of which are described herein. All three belong to adults, of which two appear to be males and one appears to be a female. Virtual cross-sections were studied and a density analysis of the plaster was performed using computed tomography scans. These were utilized to yield information regarding the modeling process. Similarities and differences between the Yiftahel and other plastered skulls from the Levant are examined. The possible role of skull plastering within a society undergoing a shift from a hunting-gathering way of life to a food producing strategy is discussed.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/plastered-skulls-prepottery-neolithic-b-site-yiftahel-israel-computed-tomographybased-analysis", "reader_count"=>16, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>5}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391553"], "description"=>"<p>Location of the three plastered skulls is marked by a white arrow (OA – open area; B – building). Many of the disruptions in the plastered floor of this building were related to human burials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology"], "article_id"=>938953, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aerial_photograph_of_Area_I_in_the_site_of_Yiftahel_/938953", "title"=>"Aerial photograph of Area I in the site of Yiftahel.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391554"], "description"=>"<p>The plastered skulls are facing west (L4187, open area 402).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "plastered", "skulls"], "article_id"=>938954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_three_plastered_skulls_in_situ_/938954", "title"=>"The three plastered skulls <i>in situ</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391555"], "description"=>"<p>Archaeological sites where artificial remodeled skulls have been found are marked with black dots.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology"], "article_id"=>938955, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_the_southern_Levant_/938955", "title"=>"Map of the southern Levant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391560"], "description"=>"<p>Details of each plastered mask are shown in the enlargements at the bottom of the figure. Homo 1 – left; Homo 2 – center; Homo 3 – right.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "plastered", "reconstruction", "preservation"], "article_id"=>938960, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_three_plastered_skulls_following_reconstruction_and_preservation_processes_/938960", "title"=>"The three plastered skulls, following reconstruction and preservation processes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391562"], "description"=>"<p>Scans of Homo 1 (lower half of figure) and Homo 2 (upper half of figure) showing results of the ROI analysis, indicating the density of the plastered masks. Densities below 1200HU are marked in white; between 1200–1400HU in yellow; and above 1400HU in green.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "homo"], "article_id"=>938962, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CT_scan_of_Homo_1_and_Homo_2_/938962", "title"=>"CT scan of Homo 1 and Homo 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391563"], "description"=>"<p>In the sagittal section (A), note the orbital filling, in its correct anatomical position (thick arrow). The root of the upper right canine is missing (thin arrow). The apical part of the dental socket is empty, while the cervical part is filled with plaster. There is no mandible. The petrous bone is intact (dashed arrow). In the axial section at the level of the maxilla (B), note that the cervical part of the dental sockets for the incisors and the canines (C – right canine) are filled with plaster. The dental sockets of the right first premolar (PM1) and the left first and second premolars are filled with material of bone-like density. Most roots of the left first molar and the right first and second molars (M2) are present.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "homo"], "article_id"=>938963, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CT_scan_of_Homo_1_/938963", "title"=>"CT scan of Homo 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391565"], "description"=>"<p>In the sagittal section (A), note that the superior part of the plastered nose (thin arrow) ends at the level of the supraorbital ridge (thick arrow). There is therefore a discrepancy between the mask's features and the correct anatomical position. Note also the thick layer of plaster (dashed arrows) at the base of the skull, instead of the missing mandible. In axial section at the level of the maxilla (B), note that the cervical part of the dental sockets for most teeth are filled with plaster. The roots of the left first molar (M1) and the right first premolar (PM2) are present.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "homo"], "article_id"=>938965, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_CT_scan_of_Homo_2_/938965", "title"=>"CT scan of Homo 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391567"], "description"=>"<p>The cross-sections shows the plastered eye (thick arrow) in its correct anatomical position, within the right orbital cavity.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "cross-section", "homo"], "article_id"=>938967, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sagittal_cross_section_of_Homo_3_/938967", "title"=>"Sagittal cross-section of Homo 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391568"], "description"=>"<p>The trauma is noted by a black arrow. Enlargement of the trauma is shown at the bottom right part of the figure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "ante-mortem", "homo"], "article_id"=>938968, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oval_depressed_ante_mortem_skull_trauma_in_Homo_3_/938968", "title"=>"Oval depressed ante-mortem skull trauma in Homo 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1391570"], "description"=>"<p>Phase 1: Removal of the mandible and upper teeth. Phase 2: Preparation of the base of the mask. Phase 3: Filling of the temporal foramina with plaster. Phase 4: Filling of orbital and nasal cavities. Phase 5: Positioning of the plaster mask on the facial area, while anchoring it on the plaster base created in phase 3. The upper part of the mask is at the level of the supra-cilliary eminence, thus the superior part of the calvarium is not covered. Phase 6: Modeling of the mask by adding shells to create the eyes (at the level of the frontal bone), adding a plaster nose (its base at the level of the inferior part of the orbitae), and tracing the mouth (at the level of the maxilla). Phase 7: Decoration of the mask by adding color and/or natural materials to mimic a headdress.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Anatomy and physiology", "Musculoskeletal system", "bone", "radiology", "Diagnostic radiology", "Computed tomography", "anthropology", "Biological anthropology", "Paleoanthropology", "Physical anthropology", "archaeology", "Virtual archaeology", "Sociology", "artists", "reconstruction", "modeling", "homo", "2s"], "article_id"=>938970, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Medicine", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Viviane Slon", "Rachel Sarig", "Israel Hershkovitz", "Hamoudi Khalaily", "Ianir Milevski"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089242.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_An_artists_reconstruction_of_the_process_of_modeling_Homo_2s_mask_/938970", "title"=>"An artists reconstruction of the process of modeling Homo 2s mask.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-02-19 03:22:36"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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