Countering Countermeasures: Detecting Identity Lies by Detecting Conscious Breakthrough
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{"title"=>"Countering countermeasures: Detecting identity lies by detecting conscious breakthrough", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Howard", "last_name"=>"Bowman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006642106"}, {"first_name"=>"Marco", "last_name"=>"Filetti", "scopus_author_id"=>"55567622400"}, {"first_name"=>"Abdulmajeed", "last_name"=>"Alsufyani", "scopus_author_id"=>"55567418500"}, {"first_name"=>"Dirk", "last_name"=>"Janssen", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197210393"}, {"first_name"=>"Li", "last_name"=>"Su", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199781122"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84897508550", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0090595", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"372754378", "pmid"=>"24608749", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84897508550"}, "id"=>"2ddb66a6-a3ff-3d7d-8a7e-3471c8ec64a2", "abstract"=>"One major drawback of deception detection is its vulnerability to countermeasures, whereby participants wilfully modulate their physiological or neurophysiological response to critical guilt-determining stimuli. One reason for this vulnerability is that stimuli are usually presented slowly. This allows enough time to consciously apply countermeasures, once the role of stimuli is determined. However, by increasing presentation speed, stimuli can be placed on the fringe of awareness, rendering it hard to perceive those that have not been previously identified, hindering the possibility to employ countermeasures. We tested an identity deception detector by presenting first names in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation and instructing participants to lie about their own identity. We also instructed participants to apply a series of countermeasures. The method proved resilient, remaining effective at detecting deception under all countermeasures.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/countering-countermeasures-detecting-identity-lies-detecting-conscious-breakthrough", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Psychology"=>12, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>12}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411817"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Note the absence of P3a (Fz and Cz) and P3b (Pz) for all conditions but the Fake.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "erps"], "article_id"=>955264, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grand_average_ERPs_for_the_Innocents_exp_5_/955264", "title"=>"Grand average ERPs for the <i>Innocents</i> (exp. 5).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411830"], "description"=>"<p><i>*</i> By applying Bonferroni correction for 12 comparisons, we obtain a significance threshold of <i>p</i> = .0042. This results in one (marginal) failure to find a significant difference between Probe and Irrelevant2 on single channel data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "t-test", "experiments", "channels"], "article_id"=>955277, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Group_level_t_test_results_for_all_experiments_and_channels_Probe_against_Irrelevant2_/955277", "title"=>"Group level t-test results for all experiments and channels (Probe against Irrelevant2).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411812"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Vertical dashed lines mark the regions in which we search for the P3. Again, the search window for the positive peak of the P3a ends at 300ms, coinciding with the start of the P3b-Pz window. The Probe shows both a P3a and a P3b (Pz channel).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "erps", "salient"], "article_id"=>955259, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grand_average_ERPs_for_the_8220_Irrelevant_as_high_salient_2_8221_experiment_exp_4_all_channels_/955259", "title"=>"Grand average ERPs for the “Irrelevant as high salient 2” experiment (exp. 4), all channels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411829"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note.</i> Right tailed test, all significant, showing that participants were following instructions correctly, answering \"Yes\" more often after Fake trials in all experiments (Bonferroni correction for 15 comparisons puts the significance threshold at p = 0.0033). When aggregating across all experiments, we get <i>p</i><.0001 for all conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "times", "answered", "comparing", "fake"], "article_id"=>955276, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wilcoxon_rank_sum_test_on_the_number_of_times_that_8220_Yes_8221_was_answered_to_the_8220_Did_you_see_your_name_8221_question_comparing_between_the_Fake_and_the_other_conditions_experiments_/955276", "title"=>"Wilcoxon rank sum test on the number of times that “Yes” was answered to the “Did you see your name?” question, comparing between the Fake and the other conditions/experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411826"], "description"=>"<p>* Participants whose p-value was above 0.05 are indicated with an asterisk (and in bold if p > 0.1). Three misses out of 42 are present, two of which are marginal. This is an extremely small Type II error rate. Note that rows are not meant to identify specific participants (this would imply that most took part in all experiments). For example, row 4 in this table would involve four participants, each of which was the fourth participant in an experiment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "per-individual", "randomisation"], "article_id"=>955273, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Result_summary_table_from_per_individual_combined_i_e_across_three_dimensions_randomisation_analysis_all_experiments_/955273", "title"=>"Result summary table from per-individual combined (i.e. across three dimensions) randomisation analysis, all experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411824"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Similarly to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone-0090595-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 7</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone-0090595-g009\" target=\"_blank\">9</a>, Probe - Irrelevant1 difference waves for each participant are shown in this figure. Again, we obtained strong P3 responses in most cases, suggesting that this countermeasure strategy did not confound our deception detector. Bounding windows (discussed in Section 2.1.9) are marked by dashed vertical lines (150–300ms for P3a positive peak and 300–1000ms for P3b).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "waves", "salient", "channels"], "article_id"=>955271, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Difference_waves_for_the_8220_Irrelevant_as_high_salient_2_8221_experiment_exp_4_all_channels_and_participants_/955271", "title"=>"Difference waves for the “Irrelevant as high salient 2” experiment (exp. 4), all channels and participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411825"], "description"=>"<p>* The outcomes that were significant at an alpha level of p ≤ 0.0025 are indicated with an asterisk (and in bold if p<0.0025).</p><p><i>Note.</i> This was a left tailed test, i.e. the alternative hypothesis was that the noncritical name scored lower than the given “critical” name. The significance threshold was set to 0.0025 after applying Bonferroni correction for 20 comparisons. Note that in the Innocents, the Fake was not found significant; this is most likely due to the low number of participants present in that experiment (8).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "responses", "questionnaires"], "article_id"=>955272, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wilcoxon_rank_sum_test_results_between_the_responses_for_the_8220_Noncritical_8221_name_in_the_recognition_questionnaires_and_each_8220_Critical_8221_name_/955272", "title"=>"Wilcoxon rank sum test results between the responses for the “Noncritical” name in the recognition questionnaires and each “Critical” name.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411806"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Vertical dashed lines mark the regions in which we search for P3 peaks. Again, the search window for the positive peak of the P3a ends at 300ms, coinciding with the start of the P3b-Pz window. Note the large P3a for the Probe condition, identifiable as a large distance between the positive and negative peaks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "erps", "salient"], "article_id"=>955253, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grand_average_ERPs_for_the_8220_Irrelevant_as_high_salient_1_8221_experiment_exp_3_all_channels_/955253", "title"=>"Grand average ERPs for the “Irrelevant as high salient 1” experiment (exp. 3), all channels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411803"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Vertical dashed lines mark the regions in which we search for P3 peaks. Again, the search window for the positive peak of the P3a ends at 300ms, coinciding with the start of the P3b-Pz window. Note the P3a for the Probe condition is identifiable as a large distance between positive and negative peaks. Also note the large P3b for the Probe condition (Pz channel).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "erps"], "article_id"=>955252, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grand_average_ERPs_for_the_8220_Probe_as_low_salient_8221_experiment_exp_2_all_channels_/955252", "title"=>"Grand average ERPs for the “Probe as low salient” experiment (exp. 2), all channels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411819"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Probe - Irrelevant1 ERP difference waves, for each participant, are shown in this figure. Dashed vertical lines mark the start and end of P3 bounding windows: 150–300ms for P3a positive peak and 300–1000ms for P3b. Clear oscillations can be seen, suggesting that Probe stimuli were clearly perceived by participants, unlike Irrelevant1 stimuli.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "waves", "channels"], "article_id"=>955266, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Difference_waves_for_the_8220_No_countermeasures_8221_experiment_exp_1_all_channels_and_participants_/955266", "title"=>"Difference waves for the “No countermeasures” experiment (exp. 1), all channels and participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411797"], "description"=>"<p>Note that name 3 would not be shown immediately after name 4 as they have 2 letters (‘A’ and ‘L’) in the same position.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "formatted"], "article_id"=>955247, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_names_List_of_example_names_formatted_as_stimuli_/955247", "title"=>"Example names. List of example names, formatted as stimuli.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411831", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411833"], "description"=>"<div><p>One major drawback of deception detection is its vulnerability to countermeasures, whereby participants wilfully modulate their physiological or neurophysiological response to critical guilt-determining stimuli. One reason for this vulnerability is that stimuli are usually presented slowly. This allows enough time to consciously apply countermeasures, once the role of stimuli is determined. However, by increasing presentation speed, stimuli can be placed on the fringe of awareness, rendering it hard to perceive those that have not been previously identified, hindering the possibility to employ countermeasures. We tested an identity deception detector by presenting first names in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation and instructing participants to lie about their own identity. We also instructed participants to apply a series of countermeasures. The method proved resilient, remaining effective at detecting deception under all countermeasures.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "detecting", "lies"], "article_id"=>955278, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Countering_Countermeasures_Detecting_Identity_Lies_by_Detecting_Conscious_Breakthrough_/955278", "title"=>"Countering Countermeasures: Detecting Identity Lies by Detecting Conscious Breakthrough", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411828"], "description"=>"<p>* Significant results after Bonferroni correction (16 comparisons) are shown in bold.</p><p><i>Note.</i> The performed test was a two-tailed test. This table shows that, in general, participants were answering “Yes” to the “Did you see your name?” question similarly between the No Countermeasure experiment and the other experiments in most cases. Only one significant result is present for the Irrelevant1 condition in the Innocent experiment. This is due to a few participants misinterpreting the instructions in the No Countermeasure condition, who answered “Yes” in trials in which they did not see their real name (the Probe), including Irrelevant trials. This is detailed in the supplementary material (Table S1 in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone.0090595.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "times", "answered", "countermeasures"], "article_id"=>955275, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wilcoxon_rank_sum_test_on_the_number_of_times_that_8220_Yes_8221_was_answered_to_the_8220_Did_you_see_your_name_8221_question_between_the_No_countermeasures_experiment_exp_1_and_all_other_experiments_/955275", "title"=>"Wilcoxon rank sum test on the number of times that “Yes” was answered to the “Did you see your name?” question, between the No countermeasures experiment (exp. 1) and all other experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411827"], "description"=>"<p>* The outcomes that were significant at an alpha level of p<0.05 are indicated with an asterisk (and in bold if p<0.1). Two false alarms are present using an alpha level of 0.05 and six using an alpha level of 0.1, respectively corresponding to false alarm rates of 4.17% and 12.5%.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "empirical", "applied"], "article_id"=>955274, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_table_for_the_empirical_false_alarm_testing_procedure_applied_to_the_Innocents_/955274", "title"=>"Summary table for the empirical false alarm testing procedure applied to the Innocents.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411822"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Similarly to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone-0090595-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 7</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone-0090595-g008\" target=\"_blank\">8</a>, this figure displays Probe - Irrelevant1 difference waves, in this case for the “Irrelevant as high salient 1” experiment. This figure does not differ much from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone-0090595-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>, as strong P3 responses were elicited in most cases. Dashed vertical lines mark the start and end of P3 bounding windows: 150–300ms for P3a positive peak and 300–1000ms for P3b.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "waves", "salient", "channels"], "article_id"=>955269, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Difference_waves_for_the_8220_Irrelevant_as_high_salient_1_8221_experiment_exp_3_all_channels_and_participants_/955269", "title"=>"Difference waves for the “Irrelevant as high salient 1” experiment (exp. 3), all channels and participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411821"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Like <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone-0090595-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>, this figure displays Probe - Irrelevant1 difference waves, in this case for the “Probe as low salient” experiment. This figure does not differ much from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595#pone-0090595-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 7</a>, as strong P3 responses were elicited in most cases. Dashed vertical lines mark the start and end of P3 bounding windows: 150–300ms for P3a positive peak and 300–1000ms for P3b.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "waves", "channels"], "article_id"=>955268, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Difference_waves_for_the_8220_Probe_as_low_salient_8221_experiment_exp_2_all_channels_and_participants_/955268", "title"=>"Difference waves for the “Probe as low salient” experiment (exp. 2), all channels and participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1411800"], "description"=>"<p>(Positive plotted down.) Vertical dashed lines mark the regions in which we search for P3 peaks. The search window for the positive peak of the P3a ends at 300ms, which coincides with the start of the window for the P3b at Pz (as described in Section 2.1.9, we search for the positive peak of the P3a between 150–300ms at Fz and Cz, while for the P3b we start at 300ms, at Pz. All bounding windows end at 1000ms from critical item onset). Note the large P3a for the Probe condition, which is much less pronounced in the Fake condition. Also note the large P3b for the Probe condition (Pz channel).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Computational biology", "computational neuroscience", "neuroscience", "Cognitive neuroscience", "cognition", "Sensory perception", "Human factors engineering", "Man computer interface", "statistics", "Statistical methods", "Diagnostic medicine", "Clinical neurophysiology", "electroencephalography", "Mental health", "psychology", "Experimental psychology", "Psychophysics", "behavior", "Attention (behavior)", "Applied psychology", "erps"], "article_id"=>955250, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Mathematics", "Medicine", "Engineering", "Sociology"], "users"=>["Howard Bowman", "Marco Filetti", "Abdulmajeed Alsufyani", "Dirk Janssen", "Li Su"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090595.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grand_average_ERPs_for_the_8220_No_countermeasures_8221_experiment_exp_1_all_channels_/955250", "title"=>"Grand average ERPs for the “No countermeasures” experiment (exp. 1), all channels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-03-07 02:57:23"}

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Relative Metric

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