Comparative Skull Analysis Suggests Species-Specific Captivity-Related Malformation in Lions (Panthera leo)
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{"title"=>"Comparative skull analysis suggests species-specific captivity-related malformation in lions (Panthera leo)", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Saragusty", "scopus_author_id"=>"8872923900"}, {"first_name"=>"Anat", "last_name"=>"Shavit-Meyrav", "scopus_author_id"=>"56137022900"}, {"first_name"=>"Nobuyuki", "last_name"=>"Yamaguchi", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402846932"}, {"first_name"=>"Rona", "last_name"=>"Nadler", "scopus_author_id"=>"56134980300"}, {"first_name"=>"Tali", "last_name"=>"Bdolah-Abram", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801647620"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Gibeon", "scopus_author_id"=>"56136722400"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas B.", "last_name"=>"Hildebrandt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005269039"}, {"first_name"=>"Merav H.", "last_name"=>"Shamir", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003647924"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"24718586", "sgr"=>"84899579700", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0094527", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84899579700", "pui"=>"372971510", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"2757179e-235f-32ae-9863-ed76afbe4492", "abstract"=>"Lion (Panthera leo) populations have dramatically decreased worldwide with a surviving population estimated at 32,000 across the African savannah. Lions have been kept in captivity for centuries and, although they reproduce well, high rates of stillbirths as well as morbidity and mortality of neonate and young lions are reported. Many of these cases are associated with bone malformations, including foramen magnum (FM) stenosis and thickened tentorium cerebelli. The precise causes of these malformations and whether they are unique to captive lions remain unclear. To test whether captivity is associated with FM stenosis, we evaluated 575 lion skulls of wild (N = 512) and captive (N = 63) origin. Tiger skulls (N = 276; 56 captive, 220 wild) were measured for comparison. While no differences were found between males and females or between subadults and adults in FM height (FMH), FMH of captive lions (17.36±3.20 mm) was significantly smaller and with greater variability when compared to that in wild lions (19.77±2.11 mm). There was no difference between wild (18.47±1.26 mm) and captive (18.56±1.64 mm) tigers in FMH. Birth origin (wild vs. captive) as a factor for FMH remained significant in lions even after controlling for age and sex. Whereas only 20/473 wild lions (4.2%) had FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile of the wild population (16.60 mm), this was evident in 40.4% (23/57) of captive lion skulls. Similar comparison for tigers found no differences between the captive and wild populations. Lions with FMH equal to or smaller than the 5th percentile had wider skulls with smaller cranial volume. Cranial volume remained smaller in both male and female captive lions when controlled for skull size. These findings suggest species- and captivity-related predisposition for the pathology in lions.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-skull-analysis-suggests-speciesspecific-captivityrelated-malformation-lions-panthera-leo", "reader_count"=>31, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Panama"=>1, "South Africa"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456823"], "description"=>"<p>Significantly different values in the same raw and within the same sex are marked with a superscript asterisk.</p><p>FMH  =  foramen magnum height, BT  =  basilar thickness</p><p>All comparisons were done using <i>T</i>-test:</p><p>a t = 2.284, <i>DF</i> = 159, <i>P</i> = 0.024</p><p>b t = 3.630, <i>DF</i> = 120, <i>P</i><0.001</p><p>c t = 1.339, <i>DF</i> = 72, <i>P</i> = 0.185</p><p>d t = 1.468, <i>DF</i> = 61, <i>P</i> = 0.147</p><p>e t = 3.283, <i>DF</i> = 265, <i>P</i> = 0.001</p><p>f t = 2.229, <i>DF</i> = 205, <i>P</i> = 0.027</p><p>g t = 1.826, <i>DF</i> = 192, <i>P</i> = 0.069</p><p>h t = 0.826, <i>DF</i> = 145, <i>P</i> = 0.410</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary neurology", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "skulls", "fm", "stenosis", "larger", "comparing", "males", "females"], "article_id"=>992859, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph Saragusty", "Anat Shavit-Meyrav", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "Rona Nadler", "Tali Bdolah-Abram", "Laura Gibeon", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Merav H. Shamir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094527.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measurements_of_lion_skulls_with_FM_stenosis_FMH_lt_8202_8202_16_60_mm_and_those_with_larger_FM_opening_comparing_males_and_females_separately_/992859", "title"=>"Measurements of lion skulls with FM stenosis (FMH< = 16.60 mm) and those with larger FM opening, comparing males and females separately.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:53:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456822"], "description"=>"<p>No statistically significant difference was noted between the captive and wild tiger populations. Asterisks represent outliers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary neurology", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "foramen", "magnum", "captive", "lions", "skulls", "populations"], "article_id"=>992858, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph Saragusty", "Anat Shavit-Meyrav", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "Rona Nadler", "Tali Bdolah-Abram", "Laura Gibeon", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Merav H. Shamir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094527.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>79, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_mean_foramen_magnum_height_FMH_in_captive_lions_is_significantly_lower_than_that_of_lion_skulls_from_wild_populations_17_36_3_20_and_19_77_2_11_respectively_T_test_t_5_543_DF_61_969_P_/992858", "title"=>"The mean foramen magnum height (FMH) in captive lions is significantly lower than that of lion skulls from wild populations (17.36±3.20 and 19.77±2.11 respectively; <i>T</i>-test: t = 5.543, <i>DF</i> = 61.969, <i>P</i><0.001).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:53:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456825"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters with superscript asterisk were statistically different.</p><p>Values are presented as mean ± SD.</p><p>All comparisons were done using <i>T</i>-test:</p><p>a. t = 5.543, <i>DF</i> = 61.969, <i>P</i><0.001</p><p>b. t = 0.372, <i>DF</i> = 73.150, <i>P</i> = 0.711</p><p>c. t = 0.090, <i>DF</i> = 462, <i>P</i> = 0.928</p><p>d. t = 0.189, <i>DF</i> = 214, <i>P</i> = 0.850</p><p>e. t = 0.887, <i>DF</i> = 482, <i>P</i> = 0.376</p><p>f. t = 1.316, <i>DF</i> = 208, <i>P</i> = 0.190</p><p>g. t = 0.495, <i>DF</i> = 368, <i>P</i> = 0.621</p><p>h. t = 0.436, <i>DF</i> = 164, <i>P</i> = 0.663</p><p>i. t = 0.087, <i>DF</i> = 319, <i>P</i> = 0.931</p><p>j. t = 1.400, <i>DF</i> = 116, <i>P</i> = 0.164</p><p>k. t = 0.827, <i>DF</i> = 47, <i>P</i> = 0.412</p><p>l. t = 0.945, <i>DF</i> = 46, <i>P</i> = 0.349</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary neurology", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "fmh", "lions"], "article_id"=>992861, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph Saragusty", "Anat Shavit-Meyrav", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "Rona Nadler", "Tali Bdolah-Abram", "Laura Gibeon", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Merav H. Shamir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094527.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_FMH_mm_in_lions_and_tigers_/992861", "title"=>"Mean FMH (mm) in lions and tigers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:53:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456824"], "description"=>"<p>FMH  =  foramen magnum height, SL  =  skull length, SW  =  skull width.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary neurology", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "correlations", "fmh", "sl", "sw", "lions"], "article_id"=>992860, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph Saragusty", "Anat Shavit-Meyrav", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "Rona Nadler", "Tali Bdolah-Abram", "Laura Gibeon", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Merav H. Shamir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094527.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pearson_Correlations_between_FMH_and_SL_and_between_SL_and_SW_in_lions_and_tigers_/992860", "title"=>"Pearson Correlations between FMH and SL and between SL and SW in lions and tigers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:53:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456821"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>– A skull of an adult lion with a normal opening of the foramen magnum. <b>B</b> - Abnormal bone growth protruding down from the roof of the foramen magnum (asterisk) in a young adult lion. (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0094527#pone-0094527-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2A</a> courtesy of Mr. Tom Kouris).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary neurology", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "captive"], "article_id"=>992857, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph Saragusty", "Anat Shavit-Meyrav", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "Rona Nadler", "Tali Bdolah-Abram", "Laura Gibeon", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Merav H. Shamir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094527.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Two_captive_lion_skull_specimens_/992857", "title"=>"Two captive lion skull specimens.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:53:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1456819"], "description"=>"<p>The distance between the left and right zygomatic arches - skull width (SW) - white arrow. <b>B</b> - The distance between the top of the basilar part of the occipital bone and the bottom of the occipital bone - foramen magnum height (FMH) – white arrow. The distance between the bottom and the top of the basilar part of the occipital bone at its most caudal aspect - basilar thickness (BT) – black arrow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["agriculture", "Animal management", "Animal breeding", "Animal welfare", "anatomy", "Comparative anatomy", "Veterinary science", "Animal types", "wildlife", "Veterinary anatomy", "Animal musculoskeletal anatomy", "Animal neuroanatomy", "Veterinary medicine", "Veterinary neurology", "Zoology", "Mammalogy", "posthion", "inion"], "article_id"=>992855, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Joseph Saragusty", "Anat Shavit-Meyrav", "Nobuyuki Yamaguchi", "Rona Nadler", "Tali Bdolah-Abram", "Laura Gibeon", "Thomas B. Hildebrandt", "Merav H. Shamir"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094527.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>47, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_The_distance_between_the_posthion_and_the_inion_skull_length_SL_black_arrow_/992855", "title"=>"A - The distance between the posthion and the inion - skull length (SL) - black arrow.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-04-09 02:53:44"}

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