Tail Biting in Pigs: Blood Serotonin and Fearfulness as Pieces of the Puzzle?
Publication Date
September 04, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Winanda W. Ursinus, Cornelis G. Van Reenen, Inonge Reimert & J. Elizabeth Bolhuis
Volume
9
Issue
9
Pages
e107040
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0107040
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25188502
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154847
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25188502
Web of Science
000341271500112
Scopus
84906965623
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/tail-biting-pigs-blood-serotonin-fearfulness-pieces-puzzle
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Tail biting in pigs: Blood serotonin and fearfulness as pieces of the puzzle?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Winanda W.", "last_name"=>"Ursinus", "scopus_author_id"=>"24462826000"}, {"first_name"=>"Cornelis G.", "last_name"=>"Van Reenen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701670177"}, {"first_name"=>"Inonge", "last_name"=>"Reimert", "scopus_author_id"=>"36768876000"}, {"first_name"=>"J. Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Bolhuis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003926611"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25188502", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0107040", "sgr"=>"84906965623", "isbn"=>"WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, no 12", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84906965623", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600017971"}, "id"=>"960bb255-d010-3c80-bc0b-c5b63921010b", "abstract"=>"Tail biting in pigs is a widespread problem in intensive pig farming. The tendency to develop this damaging behaviour has been suggested to relate to serotonergic functioning and personality characteristics of pigs. We investigated whether tail biting in pigs can be associated with blood serotonin and with their behavioural and physiological responses to novelty. Pigs (n = 480) were born in conventional farrowing pens and after weaning at four weeks of age they were either housed barren (B) or in straw-enriched (E) pens. Individual pigs were exposed to a back test and novel environment test before weaning, and after weaning to a novel object (i.e. bucket) test in an unfamiliar arena. A Principal Component Analysis on behaviours during the tests and salivary cortisol (novel object test only) revealed five factors for both housing systems, labeled 'Early life exploration', 'Near bucket', 'Cortisol', 'Vocalizations & standing alert', and 'Back test activity'. Blood samples were taken at 8, 9 and 22 weeks of age to determine blood platelet serotonin. In different phases of life, pigs were classified as tail biter/non-tail biter based on tail biting behaviour, and as victim/non-victim based on tail wounds. A combination of both classifications resulted in four pig types: biters, victims, biter/victims, and neutrals. Generally, only in phases of life during which pigs were classified as tail biters, they seemed to have lower blood platelet serotonin storage and higher blood platelet uptake velocities. Victims also seemed to have lower blood serotonin storage. Additionally, in B housing, tail biters seemed to consistently have lower scores of the factor 'Near bucket', possibly indicating a higher fearfulness in tail biters. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature of the relationship between peripheral 5-HT, fearfulness and tail biting, and to develop successful strategies and interventions to prevent and reduce tail biting.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/tail-biting-pigs-blood-serotonin-fearfulness-pieces-puzzle", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>21}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661375"], "description"=>"<p>Proportions of total variation explained by each factor are given.</p>a<p>Loadings >0.30 or <−0.30 are indicated in italics, and loadings >0.50 or <−0.50 are also indicated in bold.</p><p>Loadings<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040#nt128\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup> on the first five factors extracted by principal component analysis, after orthogonal rotation, of variables recorded in enriched housed pigs (n = 212) during a back test at 2 weeks of age, a novel environment test at 3 weeks of age and a novel object test at 13 weeks of age, including saliva cortisol variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161150, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loadings_a_on_the_first_five_factors_extracted_by_principal_component_analysis_after_orthogonal_rotation_of_variables_recorded_in_enriched_housed_pigs_n_212_during_a_back_test_at_2_weeks_of_age_a_novel_environment_test_at_3_weeks_of_age_and_a_novel_objec/1161150", "title"=>"Loadings<sup>a</sup> on the first five factors extracted by principal component analysis, after orthogonal rotation, of variables recorded in enriched housed pigs (n = 212) during a back test at 2 weeks of age, a novel environment test at 3 weeks of age and a novel object test at 13 weeks of age, including saliva cortisol variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661372"], "description"=>"a<p>Untransformed LSmeans ± SEM. LSmeans lacking a common letter differ by P<0.05 (a/b) or P<0.10 (y/z).</p>b<p>Whole blood 5-HT level in nmol/ml; Platelet 5-HT level in nmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>; Platelet 5-HT uptake velocity in pmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>/min.</p>c<p>B = Main effect of tail biter; V = Main effect of victim; B×V = Interaction between main effects resulting in Biter, Victim, Biter/Victim and Neutral.</p><p>+P<0.10.</p><p>*P<0.05.</p><p>**P<0.01.</p><p>Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2) and 22 (T3) weeks of life and given per type of pig (with respect to tail biting) in barren housing over three phases of life (weaner, grower, finisher) post-weaning<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040#nt111\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161147, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blood_5_HT_measures_at_8_T1_9_T2_and_22_T3_weeks_of_life_and_given_per_type_of_pig_with_respect_to_tail_biting_in_barren_housing_over_three_phases_of_life_weaner_grower_finisher_post_weaning_a_/1161147", "title"=>"Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2) and 22 (T3) weeks of life and given per type of pig (with respect to tail biting) in barren housing over three phases of life (weaner, grower, finisher) post-weaning<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661371"], "description"=>"a<p>Untransformed LSmeans ± SEM.</p>b<p>Whole blood 5-HT level in nmol/ml; Platelet 5-HT level in nmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>; Platelet 5-HT uptake velocity in pmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>/min.</p><p>+P<0.10.</p><p>*P<0.05.</p><p>**P<0.01.</p><p>***P<0.001.</p><p>Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2), and 22 (T3) weeks of age in barren or enriched housed victims and non-victims of tail biting at time of weaning<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040#nt105\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161146, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blood_5_HT_measures_at_8_T1_9_T2_and_22_T3_weeks_of_age_in_barren_or_enriched_housed_victims_and_non_victims_of_tail_biting_at_time_of_weaning_a_/1161146", "title"=>"Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2), and 22 (T3) weeks of age in barren or enriched housed victims and non-victims of tail biting at time of weaning<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661366"], "description"=>"<p><b>A:</b> Back test. <b>B:</b> Pre-weaning novel environment exposure (pNEe). <b>C:</b> Novel object exposure (NOe).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161141, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pigs_subjected_to_three_behavioural_tests_/1161141", "title"=>"Pigs subjected to three behavioural tests.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661374"], "description"=>"<p>Proportions of total variation explained by each factor are given.</p>a<p>Loadings >0.30 or <−0.30 are indicated in italics, and loadings >0.50 or <−0.50 are also indicated in bold.</p><p>Loadings<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040#nt126\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup> on the first five factors extracted by principal component analysis, after orthogonal rotation, of variables recorded in barren housed pigs (n = 212) during a back test at 2 weeks of age, a novel environment test at 3 weeks of age and a novel object test at 13 weeks of age, including saliva cortisol variables.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161149, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Loadings_a_on_the_first_five_factors_extracted_by_principal_component_analysis_after_orthogonal_rotation_of_variables_recorded_in_barren_housed_pigs_n_212_during_a_back_test_at_2_weeks_of_age_a_novel_environment_test_at_3_weeks_of_age_and_a_novel_object_/1161149", "title"=>"Loadings<sup>a</sup> on the first five factors extracted by principal component analysis, after orthogonal rotation, of variables recorded in barren housed pigs (n = 212) during a back test at 2 weeks of age, a novel environment test at 3 weeks of age and a novel object test at 13 weeks of age, including saliva cortisol variables.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661373"], "description"=>"a<p>Untransformed LSmeans. LSmeans lacking a common letter differ by P<0.05 (a/b) or P<0.10 (y/z).</p>b<p>Whole blood 5-HT level in nmol/ml; Platelet 5-HT level in nmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>; Platelet 5-HT uptake velocity in pmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>/min.</p>c<p>B = Main effect of tail biter; V = Main effect of victim; B×V = Interaction between main effects resulting in Biter, Victim, Biter/Victim and Neutral.</p><p>−Not tested.</p><p>+P<0.10.</p><p>*P<0.05.</p><p>**P<0.01.</p><p>***P<0.001.</p><p>Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2) and 22 (T3) weeks of life and given per type of pig (with respect to tail biting) in enriched housing over three phases of life (weaner, grower, finisher) post-weaning<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040#nt117\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161148, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blood_5_HT_measures_at_8_T1_9_T2_and_22_T3_weeks_of_life_and_given_per_type_of_pig_with_respect_to_tail_biting_in_enriched_housing_over_three_phases_of_life_weaner_grower_finisher_post_weaning_a_/1161148", "title"=>"Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2) and 22 (T3) weeks of life and given per type of pig (with respect to tail biting) in enriched housing over three phases of life (weaner, grower, finisher) post-weaning<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661370"], "description"=>"a<p>Untransformed LSmeans ± SEM.</p>b<p>Whole blood 5-HT level in nmol/ml; Platelet 5-HT level in nmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>; Platelet 5-HT uptake velocity in pmol/platelet 10<sup>9</sup>/min.</p><p>+P<0.10.</p><p>*P<0.05.</p><p>Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2), and 22 (T3) weeks of age in barren or enriched housed pigs<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040#nt101\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161145, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blood_5_HT_measures_at_8_T1_9_T2_and_22_T3_weeks_of_age_in_barren_or_enriched_housed_pigs_a_/1161145", "title"=>"Blood 5-HT measures at 8 (T1), 9 (T2), and 22 (T3) weeks of age in barren or enriched housed pigs<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661368"], "description"=>"<p>Behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to novelty (pre- and post-weaning) were summarized in five factors using a PCA. Factor scores are presented per type of pig, i.e. tail biter, victim (with tail wound), both tail biter and victim (biter/victim), or pigs that were neither tail biter or victim (neutral). <b>A:</b> Phase 1 post-weaning. <b>B:</b> Phase 2 post-weaning. <b>C:</b> Phase 3 post-weaning. +P<0.10, *P<0.05. Pig types lacking a common letter differ significantly (a/b) or tend to do so (x/y/z).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161143, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factor_scores_of_barren_housed_pigs_classified_as_biters_victims_biter_victims_or_neutrals_with_respect_to_tail_biting_post_weaning_/1161143", "title"=>"Factor scores of barren housed pigs classified as biters, victims, biter/victims or neutrals with respect to tail biting post-weaning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661369"], "description"=>"<p>Behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to novelty (pre- and post-weaning) were summarized in five factors using a PCA. Factor scores are presented per type of pig, i.e. tail biter, victim (with tail wound), both tail biter and victim (biter/victim), or pigs that were neither tail biter or victim (neutral). <b>A:</b> Phase 1 post-weaning. <b>B:</b> Phase 2 post-weaning. <b>C:</b> Phase 3 post-weaning.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161144, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factor_scores_of_enriched_housed_pigs_classified_as_biters_victims_biter_victims_or_neutrals_with_respect_to_tail_biting_post_weaning_/1161144", "title"=>"Factor scores of enriched housed pigs classified as biters, victims, biter/victims or neutrals with respect to tail biting post-weaning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1661367"], "description"=>"<p>Behavioural and physiological responses of pigs to novelty (pre- and post-weaning) were summarized in five factors using a PCA. Factor scores are presented per type of pig, i.e. victim (with tail wound) or non-victim (without tail wound) at time of weaning. <b>A:</b> Barren housing. <b>B:</b> Enriched housing. +P<0.10, *P<0.05.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["blood serotonin storage", "novel environment test", "ht", "blood platelet serotonin", "blood platelet serotonin storage", "novel object test", "principal component analysis", "blood platelet uptake velocities", "tail biters"], "article_id"=>1161142, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Winanda W. Ursinus", "Cornelis G. van Reenen", "Inonge Reimert", "J. Elizabeth Bolhuis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107040.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factor_scores_of_victims_and_non_victims_of_tail_biting_at_time_of_weaning_/1161142", "title"=>"Factor scores of victims and non-victims of tail biting at time of weaning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-04 02:50:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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