Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane Potential and GluRIIA/B Abundance at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction
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{"title"=>"Anterograde activin signaling regulates postsynaptic membrane potential and GluRIIA/B abundance at the drosophila neuromuscular junction", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Myung Jun", "last_name"=>"Kim", "scopus_author_id"=>"56372180700"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael B.", "last_name"=>"O'Connor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402685949"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600067934", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0107443", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25255438", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907459389", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"84907459389"}, "id"=>"0acf0c89-0f8f-3d90-9165-b85fbcb8e2d6", "abstract"=>"Members of the TGF-β superfamily play numerous roles in nervous system development and function. In Drosophila, retrograde BMP signaling at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is required presynaptically for proper synapse growth and neurotransmitter release. In this study, we analyzed whether the Activin branch of the TGF-β superfamily also contributes to NMJ development and function. We find that elimination of the Activin/TGF-β type I receptor babo, or its downstream signal transducer smox, does not affect presynaptic NMJ growth or evoked excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs), but instead results in a number of postsynaptic defects including depolarized membrane potential, small size and frequency of miniature excitatory junction potentials (mEJPs), and decreased synaptic densities of the glutamate receptors GluRIIA and B. The majority of the defective smox synaptic phenotypes were rescued by muscle-specific expression of a smox transgene. Furthermore, a mutation in actβ, an Activin-like ligand that is strongly expressed in motor neurons, phenocopies babo and smox loss-of-function alleles. Our results demonstrate that anterograde Activin/TGF-β signaling at the Drosophila NMJ is crucial for achieving normal abundance and localization of several important postsynaptic signaling molecules and for regulating postsynaptic membrane physiology. Together with the well-established presynaptic role of the retrograde BMP signaling, our findings indicate that the two branches of the TGF-β superfamily are differentially deployed on each side of the Drosophila NMJ synapse to regulate distinct aspects of its development and function.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/anterograde-activin-signaling-regulates-postsynaptic-membrane-potential-gluriiab-abundance-drosophil", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691898"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Synaptic GluRIIA levels are decreased greatly in <i>actβ</i> and slightly in <i>daw</i> mutants but not in <i>myo</i> mutants. (B) Decreased GluRIIB levels in Activin-type ligand mutants. The greatest decrease is shown by <i>actβ</i> mutants. (C) Representative traces of mEJPs of wild-type and Activin/TGF-β ligand mutants. (D) Quantification of mEJP size and frequency. (E) Distribution of the resting membrane potentials. The <i>actβ</i> mutants show the most depolarized resting membrane potentials. (F and F′) Total protein level of GluRIIA. A representative blot image (F) and quantification (F′). Error bars represent SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 from One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. Each genotype was compared to the wild-type. Data sets of wild-type shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443#pone-0107443-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a> were included in D and E for reference and marked with red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183084, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Among_the_Activin_type_ligands_a_mutation_in_act_946_causes_the_most_severe_phenotypes_/1183084", "title"=>"Among the Activin-type ligands, a mutation in <i>actβ</i> causes the most severe phenotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691881"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Transcript levels of <i>glurIIA</i>, <i>glurIIB, glurIIC</i> and <i>dlg</i>. Results from qRT-PCR assay demonstrate significant decreases in the levels of <i>glurIIA</i> and <i>glurIIB</i> transcripts in <i>babo</i> and <i>smox</i> mutants. (B and B′) Total protein level of GluRIIA. A representative blot (B) and quantification (B′). (C and C′) Exogenous expression of <i>glurIIA-gfp</i> in wild-type and <i>smox</i> mutant backgrounds. Representative confocal images (C) and quantification (C′) of GFP activity at the synapses. (D and D′) Exogenous expression of <i>glurIIB-gfp</i>. Representative confocal images (D) and quantification (D′) of GFP activity at the synapses. ***p<0.001 from One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. ###p<0.001 from unpaired t-test. Error bars represent SEM. Scale bar equals 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183080, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Synaptic_GluRIIA_and_GluRIIB_abundances_are_differentially_regulated_by_Activin_TGF_946_pathway_/1183080", "title"=>"Synaptic GluRIIA and GluRIIB abundances are differentially regulated by Activin/TGF-β pathway.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691874"], "description"=>"<p>(A and A′) Representative traces and quantification of mEJPs of wild-type and Activin/TGF-β pathway mutants. Note that both the size and frequency of the mEJPs are decreased in <i>babo</i> and <i>smox</i> mutants. (B and B′) Representative traces and quantification of EJP in Activin/TGF-β pathway mutants. The mean peak amplitude is not affected by the <i>babo</i> and <i>smox</i> mutations. (C) Quantification of the quantal content. Note the increased quantal content in <i>babo<sup>fd4/df</sup></i> and <i>smox<sup>f4</sup></i> animals. (D) Distribution of resting membrane potentials. The <i>babo</i> and <i>smox</i> mutants exhibit more depolarized resting membrane potentials. (E) Relative transcript levels of the molecules potentially involved in regulating the resting membrane potential revealed by qRT-PCR assay. Error bars represent SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 from One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. ##p<0.01, ###p<0.001 from unpaired t-test. Each genotype was compared to wild-type. Additionally, <i>smox<sup>f4</sup></i> was also compared to <i>babo<sup>fd4/df</sup></i> in A′, C and D as indicated by lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183075, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activin_TGF_946_pathway_mutants_exhibit_defective_synaptic_activity_/1183075", "title"=>"Activin/TGF-β pathway mutants exhibit defective synaptic activity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691901"], "description"=>"<p>Activin-type ligands are secreted from glia, motor neuron and muscle. The Activin-type ligands induce Babo-mediated phosphorylation of Smox that facilitates association with Med. In the muscle, the phospho-Smox/Med complexes activate the transcription of <i>glurIIB</i> and an unknown factor controlling post-transcriptional process or stability of <i>glurIIA</i> mRNA. In the motor neuron, the phospo-Smox/Med complex controls spontaneous release of synaptic vesicles via unknown mechanism(s). On the other hand, glia-secreted Mav stimulates Mad phosphorylation in the muscle resulting in increased <i>gbb</i> transcription. Gbb protein is released from the muscle and binds Tkv/Sax and Wit complex on the motor neuron leading to an accumulation of phospho-Mad in the nuclei by an unknown mechanism <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443#pone.0107443-Smith1\" target=\"_blank\">[68]</a>. The resultant phospho-Mad/Med complex activates the transcription of <i>trio</i> whose product promotes synaptic bouton formation. The white dotted arrows in this model depict speculated pathways that should be examined in future studies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183087, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>126, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_controlling_NMJ_development_and_function_by_Activin_TGF_946_and_BMP_pathways_/1183087", "title"=>"Model of controlling NMJ development and function by Activin/TGF-β and BMP pathways.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691900"], "description"=>"<p>Representative confocal images of GluRIIA (A) and GluRIIB (B) stainings from wild-type and <i>wit<sup>A12/B11</sup></i> animals. (A′ and B′) Quantification of GluRIIA (A′) and GluRIIB (B′) densities of wild-type and <i>wit<sup>A12/B11</sup></i> animals. (C and D) Quantification of GluRIIA (C) and GluRIIB (D) densities of wild-type and <i>mad<sup>1/12</sup></i> animals. (E) Quantification of synaptic GluRIIA and GluRIIB abundances in <i>smox</i> and <i>smox;babo</i> double mutants. Introduction of <i>babo</i> mutation in the <i>smox</i> mutant background increased the GluR levels toward those of the <i>babo</i> mutant. (F) Quantification of synaptic GluRIIA and GluRIIB abundances in <i>smox</i> and <i>med</i> mutants. A mutation in <i>med</i> increased the GluR levels from those of <i>smox</i> mutant. Error bars represent SEM. ###p<0.001 from unpaired t-test. Scale bar equals 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183086, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BMP_signaling_mutants_display_normal_or_increased_abundance_of_synaptic_GluRs_/1183086", "title"=>"BMP signaling mutants display normal or increased abundance of synaptic GluRs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691897"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Quantification of GluRIIA abundance. The decreased GluRIIA level exhibited by s<i>mox</i> mutants is rescued over the level of control animals (<i>smox<sup>f4</sup>;</i>UAS-<i>smox/+</i>) and even the wild-type only when the <i>smox</i> transgene is expressed via the muscle driver, <i>Mef2</i>-GAL4. (B) Quantification of GluRIIB level demonstrates a specific rescue by muscular expression of <i>smox</i> transgene. (C) The decreased level of Dlg is also restored by muscular expression of <i>smox</i> transgene. (D) Quantification of the size and frequency of mEJPs. Decreased mEJP size and frequency are restored in <i>smox<sup>f4</sup>;Mef2-</i>GAL4/UAS<i>-smox</i> animals. Note that expression of the <i>smox</i> transgene in motor neurons (<i>smox<sup>f4</sup>;OK6</i>-GAL4/UAS-<i>smox</i>) most effectively rescues the decreased mEJP frequency. (E) Depolarized resting membrane potential of the <i>smox</i> mutants is fully restored by muscular expression of <i>smox</i> transgene. (F) Quantification of GluRIIA and GluRIIB abundance in control (Mef2>/+) and <i>smox</i> knockdown (Mef2><i>smox</i>-RNAi) animals. Error bars represent SEM. **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 from One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. ###p<0.001 from unpaired t-test. Each genotype was compared to <i>smox<sup>f4</sup>;</i>UAS<i>-smox/+</i>. Additionally, <i>smox<sup>f4</sup>;Mef2</i>-GAL4/UAS-<i>smox</i> was also compared to <i>smox<sup>f4</sup>;OK6-</i>GAL4<i>/</i>UAS-<i>smox.</i> Data sets of wild-type shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443#pone-0107443-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 2</a> were included in D and E for reference and marked with red.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183083, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Muscle_expression_of_smox_transgene_rescues_the_defective_phenotypes_of_smox_mutants_/1183083", "title"=>"Muscle expression of <i>smox</i> transgene rescues the defective phenotypes of <i>smox</i> mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691876"], "description"=>"<p>(A and A’) Representative confocal images of the GluRIIA staining and quantification. The GluRIIA abundance is reduced greatly in <i>smox<sup>f4</sup></i> and slightly in <i>babo<sup>fd4/df</sup></i>NMJs. (B and B′) Representative confocal images of the GluRIIB staining and quantification shows decreased abundances in <i>babo<sup>fd4/df</sup></i> and <i>smox<sup>f4</sup></i> NMJs. (C and C′) Representative confocal images of Dlg staining and quantification. The Dlg level is also decreased in the <i>babo</i> and <i>smox</i> mutants. (D) Quantification of synaptic GluRIIC abundance in wild-type and <i>babo</i> and <i>smox</i> mutants. (E) Quantification of dPak staining reveals no difference between wild-type and Activin/TGF-β pathway mutants. Error bars represent SEM. *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 from One-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test. ##p<0.01, ###p<0.001 from unpaired t-test. Each genotype was compared to wild-type. Additionally, <i>smox<sup>f4</sup></i> was also compared to <i>babo<sup>fd4/df</sup></i> in A′, B′, C′ and D as indicated by lines. Scale bar equals 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183077, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Postsynaptic_densities_of_GluRIIA_GluRIIB_and_Dlg_are_decreased_in_Activin_TGF_946_pathway_mutants_/1183077", "title"=>"Postsynaptic densities of GluRIIA, GluRIIB and Dlg are decreased in Activin/TGF-β pathway mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691910", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691911", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691913", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691914", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691915", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691916"], "description"=>"<div><p>Members of the TGF-β superfamily play numerous roles in nervous system development and function. In <i>Drosophila</i>, retrograde BMP signaling at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is required presynaptically for proper synapse growth and neurotransmitter release. In this study, we analyzed whether the Activin branch of the TGF-β superfamily also contributes to NMJ development and function. We find that elimination of the Activin/TGF-β type I receptor <i>babo,</i> or its downstream signal transducer <i>smox,</i> does not affect presynaptic NMJ growth or evoked excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs), but instead results in a number of postsynaptic defects including depolarized membrane potential, small size and frequency of miniature excitatory junction potentials (mEJPs), and decreased synaptic densities of the glutamate receptors GluRIIA and B. The majority of the defective <i>smox</i> synaptic phenotypes were rescued by muscle-specific expression of a <i>smox</i> transgene. Furthermore, a mutation in <i>actβ</i>, an Activin-like ligand that is strongly expressed in motor neurons, phenocopies <i>babo</i> and <i>smox</i> loss-of-function alleles. Our results demonstrate that anterograde Activin/TGF-β signaling at the <i>Drosophila</i> NMJ is crucial for achieving normal abundance and localization of several important postsynaptic signaling molecules and for regulating postsynaptic membrane physiology. Together with the well-established presynaptic role of the retrograde BMP signaling, our findings indicate that the two branches of the TGF-β superfamily are differentially deployed on each side of the <i>Drosophila</i> NMJ synapse to regulate distinct aspects of its development and function.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183094, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Anterograde_Activin_Signaling_Regulates_Postsynaptic_Membrane_Potential_and_GluRIIA_B_Abundance_at_the_Drosophila_Neuromuscular_Junction/1183094", "title"=>"Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane Potential and GluRIIA/B Abundance at the <i>Drosophila</i> Neuromuscular Junction", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1691872"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Expression of Activin/TGF-β-type ligands in the neuromuscular system: <i>actβ-</i>GAL4-driven ChRFP-Tubulin expression is found in the axons and axon terminals innervating the body-wall muscles, <i>daw</i>-GAL4 drives Cherry-Tubulin expression at high levels in muscle 6/7 and surface nerve wrapping glial cells. Lower expression is found in muscle 12&13. <i>myo</i>-GAL4 drives Cherry-Tubulin expression in all body wall muscles. (B) Flag-tagged Babo<sub>b</sub> was expressed in muscle by <i>Mef2</i>-GAL4 or in motor neurons by <i>OK6</i>-GAL4. Immunohistochemistry using anti-Flag antibody reveals preferred localization of Babo<sub>b</sub>(Flag) to NMJ both in the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells. (C) Representative images of the NMJ of <i>wt</i>, <i>babo<sup>fd4/df</sup></i> and <i>smox<sup>f4</sup></i> animals from HRP staining. In this figure, <i>babo<sup>fd4/df</sup></i> and <i>smox<sup>f4</sup></i> NMJs show concentrated distribution of synapses. (C’) Quantification of the NMJ size. The total number of synapses were counted and normalized to muscle surface area. There was no significant difference between the wild-type and <i>babo</i> or <i>smox</i> mutants. (D) Quantification of the NMJ size of the animals overexpressing constitutively-activated Babo either in the motor neuron or in the muscle. Overexpression of the activated Babo did not affect the NMJ size. Error bars represent SEM. Left scale bar in A is 80 µm; right scale bar in A is 16 µm; all others are 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["junction potentials", "synapse growth", "postsynaptic defects", "depolarized membrane", "tgf", "Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction Members", "Activin branch", "superfamily", "postsynaptic membrane physiology", "Anterograde Activin Signaling Regulates Postsynaptic Membrane", "motor neurons", "bmp", "smox synaptic phenotypes", "presynaptic NMJ growth", "neurotransmitter release", "Drosophila NMJ", "Drosophila NMJ synapse", "function", "presynaptic role", "glutamate receptors GluRIIA", "synaptic densities", "NMJ development", "signal transducer smox", "junctional potentials", "receptor babo", "smox transgene", "phenocopies babo", "system development", "ejp"], "article_id"=>1183073, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Myung-Jun Kim", "Michael B. O’Connor"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107443.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activin_TGF_946_pathway_has_no_influence_on_synaptic_growth_at_the_NMJ_/1183073", "title"=>"Activin/TGF-β pathway has no influence on synaptic growth at the NMJ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-25 04:01:07"}

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Relative Metric

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