Widening Consumer Access to Medicines through Switching Medicines to Non-Prescription: A Six Country Comparison
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{"title"=>"Widening consumer access to medicines through switching medicines to non-prescription: A six country comparison", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Natalie J.", "last_name"=>"Gauld", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508137271"}, {"first_name"=>"Fiona S.", "last_name"=>"Kelly", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102252126"}, {"first_name"=>"Nahoko", "last_name"=>"Kurosawa", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005008449"}, {"first_name"=>"Linda J.M.", "last_name"=>"Bryant", "scopus_author_id"=>"35740031400"}, {"first_name"=>"Lynne M.", "last_name"=>"Emmerton", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603454936"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen A.", "last_name"=>"Buetow", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003570728"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600067861", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0107726", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907452555", "pmid"=>"25251434", "sgr"=>"84907452555"}, "id"=>"4034c18e-a4f6-398f-8215-c8d07146b79a", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Switching or reclassifying medicines with established safety profiles from prescription to non-prescription aims to increase timely consumer access to medicines, reduce under-treatment and enhance self-management. However, risks include suboptimal therapy and adverse effects. With a long-standing government policy supporting switching or reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription, the United Kingdom is believed to lead the world in switch, but evidence for this is inconclusive. Interest in switching medicines for certain long-term conditions has arisen in the United Kingdom, United States, and Europe, but such switches have been contentious. The objective of this study was then to provide a comprehensive comparison of progress in switch for medicines across six developed countries: the United States; the United Kingdom; Australia; Japan; the Netherlands; and New Zealand.\\n\\nMETHODS: A list of prescription-to-non-prescription medicine switches was systematically compiled. Three measures were used to compare switch activity across the countries: \"progressive\" switches from 2003 to 2013 (indicating incremental consumer benefit over current non-prescription medicines); \"first-in-world\" switches from 2003 to 2013; and switch date comparisons for selected medicines.\\n\\nRESULTS: New Zealand was the most active in progressive switches from 2003 to 2013, with the United Kingdom and Japan not far behind. The United States, Australia and the Netherlands showed the least activity in this period. Few medicines for long-term conditions were switched, even in the United Kingdom and New Zealand where first-in-world switches were most likely. Switch of certain medicines took considerably longer in some countries than others. For example, a consumer in the United Kingdom could self-medicate with a non-sedating antihistamine 19 years earlier than a consumer in the United States.\\n\\nCONCLUSION: Proactivity in medicines switching, most notably in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, questions missed opportunities to enhance consumers' self-management in countries such as the United States.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/widening-consumer-access-medicines-through-switching-medicines-nonprescription-six-country-compariso", "reader_count"=>18, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}}, "group_count"=>1}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689155"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Switching or reclassifying medicines with established safety profiles from prescription to non-prescription aims to increase timely consumer access to medicines, reduce under-treatment and enhance self-management. However, risks include suboptimal therapy and adverse effects. With a long-standing government policy supporting switching or reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription, the United Kingdom is believed to lead the world in switch, but evidence for this is inconclusive. Interest in switching medicines for certain long-term conditions has arisen in the United Kingdom, United States, and Europe, but such switches have been contentious. The objective of this study was then to provide a comprehensive comparison of progress in switch for medicines across six developed countries: the United States; the United Kingdom; Australia; Japan; the Netherlands; and New Zealand.</p><p>Methods</p><p>A list of prescription-to-non-prescription medicine switches was systematically compiled. Three measures were used to compare switch activity across the countries: “progressive” switches from 2003 to 2013 (indicating incremental consumer benefit over current non-prescription medicines); “first-in-world” switches from 2003 to 2013; and switch date comparisons for selected medicines.</p><p>Results</p><p>New Zealand was the most active in progressive switches from 2003 to 2013, with the United Kingdom and Japan not far behind. The United States, Australia and the Netherlands showed the least activity in this period. Few medicines for long-term conditions were switched, even in the United Kingdom and New Zealand where first-in-world switches were most likely. Switch of certain medicines took considerably longer in some countries than others. For example, a consumer in the United Kingdom could self-medicate with a non-sedating antihistamine 19 years earlier than a consumer in the United States.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Proactivity in medicines switching, most notably in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, questions missed opportunities to enhance consumers' self-management in countries such as the United States.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kingdom", "New Zealand.MethodsA list", "Country Comparison BackgroundSwitching", "new zealand", "reclassifying medicines", "United States", "Widening Consumer Access", "switch date comparisons", "consumer"], "article_id"=>1180927, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Natalie J. Gauld", "Fiona S. Kelly", "Nahoko Kurosawa", "Linda J. M. Bryant", "Lynne M. Emmerton", "Stephen A. Buetow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Widening_Consumer_Access_to_Medicines_through_Switching_Medicines_to_Non_Prescription_A_Six_Country_Comparison/1180927", "title"=>"Widening Consumer Access to Medicines through Switching Medicines to Non-Prescription: A Six Country Comparison", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:11:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689151"], "description"=>"<p>First-in-world medicine switches, 2003–2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kingdom", "New Zealand.MethodsA list", "Country Comparison BackgroundSwitching", "new zealand", "reclassifying medicines", "United States", "Widening Consumer Access", "switch date comparisons", "consumer"], "article_id"=>1180923, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Natalie J. Gauld", "Fiona S. Kelly", "Nahoko Kurosawa", "Linda J. M. Bryant", "Lynne M. Emmerton", "Stephen A. Buetow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/First_in_world_medicine_switches_2003_2013_/1180923", "title"=>"First-in-world medicine switches, 2003–2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:11:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689152"], "description"=>"<p><b>X</b> =  not switched.</p><p>a. In early Australian switches timing differed between the States and Territories, the earliest switch date is shown.</p><p>b. Orciprenaline (metaproterenol), a non-selective beta-agonist was switched in the US in 1982, but reversed in 1983 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726#pone.0107726-Hendeles1\" target=\"_blank\">[31]</a>.</p><p>c. Flavoxate is non-prescription in both Australia and NZ, but marketed in neither.</p><p>d. The non-sedating antihistamine switched in the UK in 1983 was terfenadine, which later reverted to prescription medicine following QT prolongation concerns <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726#pone.0107726-Blenkinsopp1\" target=\"_blank\">[3]</a>.</p><p>e. Hydrocortisone 1% with oxytetracycline (but not alone) has long been available without prescription in Japan.</p><p>f. Other antibacterial eye preparations have long been available without prescription in these jurisdictions, e.g. sulfacetamide in NZ and Australia, polymyxin and bacitracin in the US, and sulfamethoxazole in Japan.</p><p>g. Tranexamic acid was switched in Australia in 2000 but never marketed as a non-prescription medicine and reverted to prescription in 2007 under Trans-Tasman Harmonization.</p><p>h. Tranexamic acid in Japan was switched at a lower dose, in combination with other ingredients, and for a different indication to the UK (chloasma not menorrhagia) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726#pone.0107726-Pharmaceuticals1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a>.</p><p>i. Oral oxybutynin was previously available without prescription in NZ.</p><p>Note: Medicines are oral unless otherwise specified. All vaccines are injected except for the cholera and travellers' diarrhoea vaccine which is oral.</p><p>Comparison of timing of selected medicine switches across countries up to and including 2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kingdom", "New Zealand.MethodsA list", "Country Comparison BackgroundSwitching", "new zealand", "reclassifying medicines", "United States", "Widening Consumer Access", "switch date comparisons", "consumer"], "article_id"=>1180924, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Natalie J. Gauld", "Fiona S. Kelly", "Nahoko Kurosawa", "Linda J. M. Bryant", "Lynne M. Emmerton", "Stephen A. Buetow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_timing_of_selected_medicine_switches_across_countries_up_to_and_including_2013_/1180924", "title"=>"Comparison of timing of selected medicine switches across countries up to and including 2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:11:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689150"], "description"=>"<p>Note: All medicines are oral preparations, unless otherwise stated. ETEC  =  enterotoxigenic <i>Escherichia coli</i>; EHC  =  emergency hormonal contraception.</p><p>a. Extended indication or increased strength rather than new switch.</p><p>b. In combination with ascorbic acid, L- cysteine, pantothenic acid, and pyridoxine, for chloasma.</p><p>c. For hypertriglyceridaemia.</p><p>Progressive switches, 2003–2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kingdom", "New Zealand.MethodsA list", "Country Comparison BackgroundSwitching", "new zealand", "reclassifying medicines", "United States", "Widening Consumer Access", "switch date comparisons", "consumer"], "article_id"=>1180922, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Natalie J. Gauld", "Fiona S. Kelly", "Nahoko Kurosawa", "Linda J. M. Bryant", "Lynne M. Emmerton", "Stephen A. Buetow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Progressive_switches_2003_2013_/1180922", "title"=>"Progressive switches, 2003–2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:11:32"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689146"], "description"=>"<p>Progressive medicine switches 2003–2013.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kingdom", "New Zealand.MethodsA list", "Country Comparison BackgroundSwitching", "new zealand", "reclassifying medicines", "United States", "Widening Consumer Access", "switch date comparisons", "consumer"], "article_id"=>1180919, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Natalie J. Gauld", "Fiona S. Kelly", "Nahoko Kurosawa", "Linda J. M. Bryant", "Lynne M. Emmerton", "Stephen A. Buetow"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107726.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Progressive_medicine_switches_2003_2013_/1180919", "title"=>"Progressive medicine switches 2003–2013.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:11:32"}

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