The Neural Basis of Mark Making: A Functional MRI Study of Drawing
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{"title"=>"The neural basis of mark making: A functional MRI study of drawing", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ye", "last_name"=>"Yuan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56374765700"}, {"first_name"=>"Steven", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"55712926200"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25271440", "pui"=>"600086956", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907481714", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0108628", "sgr"=>"84907481714"}, "id"=>"f3a00bf2-95cf-3cb3-a3a0-74964550583b", "abstract"=>"Compared to most other forms of visually-guided motor activity, drawing is unique in that it \"leaves a trail behind\" in the form of the emanating image. We took advantage of an MRI-compatible drawing tablet in order to examine both the motor production and perceptual emanation of images. Subjects participated in a series of mark making tasks in which they were cued to draw geometric patterns on the tablet's surface. The critical comparison was between when visual feedback was displayed (image generation) versus when it was not (no image generation). This contrast revealed an occipito-parietal stream involved in motion-based perception of the emerging image, including areas V5/MT+, LO, V3A, and the posterior part of the intraparietal sulcus. Interestingly, when subjects passively viewed animations of visual patterns emerging on the projected surface, all of the sensorimotor network involved in drawing was strongly activated, with the exception of the primary motor cortex. These results argue that the origin of the human capacity to draw and write involves not only motor skills for tool use but also motor-sensory links between drawing movements and the visual images that emanate from them in real time.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/neural-basis-mark-making-functional-mri-study-drawing", "reader_count"=>19, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>8, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699641"], "description"=>"<p>a) Copying vs. fixation. b) Copying vs. mark marking. Data are corrected for multiple comparisons using FDR p<0.01. See legend to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone-0108628-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> for abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189516, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_activations_for_copying_Lateral_view_/1189516", "title"=>"Brain activations for copying: Lateral view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699632"], "description"=>"<p>Representative stimuli and responses for two of the drawing conditions. In mark making, the name of a geometric figure and a direction for drawing it are presented. Blind drawing (not shown in the figure) has exactly the same stimuli, but no response is observable on the drawing tablet. In copying, an object and a starting point for drawing are indicated, and the subject creates a copy of the object in the space to the right, with the object continually in view.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189507, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Tasks_and_stimuli_for_the_study_/1189507", "title"=>"Tasks and stimuli for the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699649", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699650"], "description"=>"<div><p>Compared to most other forms of visually-guided motor activity, drawing is unique in that it “leaves a trail behind” in the form of the emanating image. We took advantage of an MRI-compatible drawing tablet in order to examine both the motor production and perceptual emanation of images. Subjects participated in a series of mark making tasks in which they were cued to draw geometric patterns on the tablet's surface. The critical comparison was between when visual feedback was displayed (image generation) versus when it was not (no image generation). This contrast revealed an occipito-parietal stream involved in motion-based perception of the emerging image, including areas V5/MT+, LO, V3A, and the posterior part of the intraparietal sulcus. Interestingly, when subjects passively viewed animations of visual patterns emerging on the projected surface, all of the sensorimotor network involved in drawing was strongly activated, with the exception of the primary motor cortex. These results argue that the origin of the human capacity to draw and write involves not only motor skills for tool use but also motor-sensory links between drawing movements and the visual images that emanate from them in real time.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189524, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Neural_Basis_of_Mark_Making_A_Functional_MRI_Study_of_Drawing_/1189524", "title"=>"The Neural Basis of Mark Making: A Functional MRI Study of Drawing", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699645"], "description"=>"<p>a) Perception vs. fixation. b) Mark making vs. perception. Data are corrected for multiple comparisons using FDR p<0.01. The blue oval in panel a indicates the region of the sensorimotor cortex for copying not activated in motion perception. See legend to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone-0108628-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> for abbreviations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189521, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_activations_for_motion_perception_/1189521", "title"=>"Brain activations for motion perception.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699643"], "description"=>"<p>a) Copying vs. fixation. b) Copying vs. mark marking. Data are corrected for multiple comparisons using FDR p<0.01. The left side of the slices is the left side of the brain, as indicated by the L (left) and R (right) symbols. The Talairach z coordinate is shown below the slices. Abbreviations: IFG: inferior frontal gyrus; SMA: supplementary motor area.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189518, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_activations_for_copying_Medial_view_/1189518", "title"=>"Brain activations for copying: Medial view.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699639"], "description"=>"<p>a) Mark making vs. fixation. b) Mark making vs. blind drawing. Data are corrected for multiple comparisons using FDR p<0.01. Activations shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone-0108628-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 2</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone-0108628-g005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a> are rendered onto an inflated brain of one of the subjects in the study (Subject 4) as normalized into Talairach space. The color bars in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone-0108628-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 2</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone-0108628-g005\" target=\"_blank\">5</a> reflect the t score of the activated voxels for a given contrast. Abbreviations: FEF: frontal eye fields; IPS1/2: segments 1 and 2 of the intraparietal sulcus; IPS3/4: segments 3 and 4 of the intraparietal sulcus; MFG: middle frontal gyrus; MT: middle temporal; SMC: sensorimotor cortex; SPL: superior parietal lobule.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189514, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Brain_activations_for_mark_making_/1189514", "title"=>"Brain activations for mark making.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699648"], "description"=>"<p>Stereotaxic coordinates are in millimeters along the left-right (x), anterior-posterior (y), and superior-inferior (z) axes. In parentheses after each brain region is the Brodmann area, except for the cerebellum, in which case the anatomical labels of Schmahmann et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone.0108628-Schmahmann1\" target=\"_blank\">[46]</a> are used. Due to the excessive number of activation foci for copying and perception, we decided to eliminate foci with a t value less than 8.0. The data in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628#pone-0108628-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>, by contrast, includes activation foci with a t value as low as 6.3. Abbreviations: IPS: intraparietal sulcus; LO: lateral occipital complex; MT: middle temporal; SMA: supplementary motor area.</p><p>Talairach coordinates for copying and perception.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189523, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Talairach_coordinates_for_copying_and_perception_/1189523", "title"=>"Talairach coordinates for copying and perception.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1699647"], "description"=>"<p>Stereotaxic coordinates are in millimeters along the left-right (x), anterior-posterior (y), and superior-inferior (z) axes. In parentheses after each brain region is the Brodmann area, except for the cerebellum, in which case the anatomical labels of Schmahmann et al. (2000) are used. Abbreviations: IPS: intraparietal sulcus; LO: lateral occipital complex; MT: middle temporal.</p><p>Talairach coordinates for mark making, blind drawing, and the contrast between mark making and blind drawing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["motor", "3a", "Functional MRI Study", "lo", "image generation"], "article_id"=>1189522, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ye Yuan", "Steven Brown"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108628.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Talairach_coordinates_for_mark_making_blind_drawing_and_the_contrast_between_mark_making_and_blind_drawing_/1189522", "title"=>"Talairach coordinates for mark making, blind drawing, and the contrast between mark making and blind drawing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-01 02:44:14"}

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Relative Metric

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