The Effects of Cold Exposure on Leukocytes, Hormones and Cytokines during Acute Exercise in Humans
Publication Date
October 22, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Dominique D. Gagnon, Sheila S. Gagnon, Hannu Rintamäki, Timo Törmäkangas, et al
Volume
9
Issue
10
Pages
e110774
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0110774
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25338085
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4206434
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25338085
Web of Science
000343674800075
Scopus
84908461845
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-cold-exposure-leukocytes-hormones-cytokines-during-acute-exercise-humans
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The effects of cold exposure on leukocytes, hormones and cytokines during acute exercise in humans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Dominique D.", "last_name"=>"Gagnon", "scopus_author_id"=>"54899833500"}, {"first_name"=>"Sheila S.", "last_name"=>"Gagnon", "scopus_author_id"=>"55880317600"}, {"first_name"=>"Hannu", "last_name"=>"Rintamäki", "scopus_author_id"=>"35576428400"}, {"first_name"=>"Timo", "last_name"=>"Törmäkangas", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506099905"}, {"first_name"=>"Katri", "last_name"=>"Puukka", "scopus_author_id"=>"9249785300"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl Heinz", "last_name"=>"Herzig", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007026450"}, {"first_name"=>"Heikki", "last_name"=>"Kyröläinen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004076159"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600234722", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110774", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908461845", "pmid"=>"25338085", "sgr"=>"84908461845"}, "id"=>"1d93097c-e733-3d4b-b549-6cee1e262661", "abstract"=>"The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO2) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO2peak) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22degreeC (NT), and in 0degreeC (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.4+/-0.2degreeC whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.5+/-1.4degreeC and 9.3+/-2.5degreeC respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT vs. COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT vs. other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-gamma, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1beta, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT vs. COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-gamma, MIP-1beta, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV vs. COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exercise-induced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse this benefit.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-cold-exposure-leukocytes-hormones-cytokines-during-acute-exercise-humans", "reader_count"=>42, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>5, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>15, "Psychology"=>3, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>5}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>15}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>3}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727194"], "description"=>"<p>*Significantly different between BL and EEx (<i>p</i><0.05). <sup>A</sup> Significantly different from SHIV (<i>p</i><0.05). <sup>B</sup> Significantly different from COLD (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212237, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_leukocytes_A_lymphocytes_B_granulocytes_C_and_monocytes_D_between_baseline_BL_and_end_of_60_min_of_exercise_EEx_N_8202_8202_9_Mean_177_SD_/1212237", "title"=>"Changes in leukocytes (A), lymphocytes (B), granulocytes (C), and monocytes (D) between baseline (BL) and end of 60 min of exercise (EEx) (N = 9) (Mean ±SD).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727202"], "description"=>"<p>*, Significant difference between pre and post (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>†<p>, Significant difference between pre and post across environmental conditions.</p>‡<p>difference between pre and post across environmental and exercise conditions.</p>A,<p>Significantly different from SHIV (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>B,<p>Significantly different from COLD (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>C,<p>Significantly different from NT (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>D,<p>Significantly different from COLD across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>E,<p>Significantly different from NT across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>F<p>, Significantly different from SHIV across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p><p>Mean ± SD concentrations (ng·ml<sup>−1</sup>) of growth factors following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212245, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SD_concentrations_ng_ml_8722_1_of_growth_factors_following_60_min_of_low_and_moderate_exercise_in_a_thermoneutral_NT_cold_COLD_and_cold_environment_with_shivering_SHIV_at_baseline_BL_and_at_end_of_exercise_EEx_/1212245", "title"=>"Mean ± SD concentrations (ng·ml<sup>−1</sup>) of growth factors following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727201"], "description"=>"<p>*, Significant difference between pre and post (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>†<p>, Significant difference between pre and post across environmental conditions.</p>‡<p>difference between pre and post across environmental and exercise conditions.</p>A,<p>Significantly different from SHIV (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>B,<p>Significantly different from COLD (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>C,<p>Significantly different from NT (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>D,<p>Significantly different from COLD across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>E,<p>Significantly different from NT across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05). F, Significantly different from SHIV across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p><p>Mean ± SD concentrations (ng·ml<sup>−1</sup>) of anti-inflammatory cytokines following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212244, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SD_concentrations_ng_ml_8722_1_of_anti_inflammatory_cytokines_following_60_min_of_low_and_moderate_exercise_in_a_thermoneutral_NT_cold_COLD_and_cold_environment_with_shivering_SHIV_at_baseline_BL_and_at_end_of_exercise_EEx_/1212244", "title"=>"Mean ± SD concentrations (ng·ml<sup>−1</sup>) of anti-inflammatory cytokines following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727196"], "description"=>"<p>*Significantly different between LOW and MOD (<i>p</i><0.05). <sup>†</sup>Significantly different from NT (<i>p</i><0.05). <sup>‡</sup>Significantly different from NT and SHIV (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212239, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Z_scores_for_growth_factors_anti_inflammatory_and_pro_inflammatory_cytokines_in_NT_COLD_and_SHIV_within_LOW_and_MOD_/1212239", "title"=>"Z scores for growth factors, anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NT, COLD and SHIV within LOW and MOD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727197"], "description"=>"<p>*, Significant difference between pre and post (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>A,<p>Significantly different from SHIV (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>B,<p>Significantly different from COLD (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>C,<p>Significantly different from NT (<i>p</i><0.05).</p><p>Mean ± SD values for heart rate (HR), core temperature (T<sub>core</sub>) and mean skin temperature (<sub>sk</sub>) following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212240, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SD_values_for_heart_rate_HR_core_temperature_T_core_and_mean_skin_temperature_sk_following_60_min_of_low_and_moderate_exercise_in_a_thermoneutral_NT_cold_COLD_and_cold_environment_with_shivering_SHIV_at_baseline_BL_and_at_end_of_exercise_EEx_/1212240", "title"=>"Mean ± SD values for heart rate (HR), core temperature (T<sub>core</sub>) and mean skin temperature (<sub>sk</sub>) following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727204", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727205", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727206"], "description"=>"<div><p>The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of exercise on total leukocyte count and subsets, as well as hormone and cytokine responses in a thermoneutral and cold environment, with and without an individualized pre-cooling protocol inducing low-intensity shivering. Nine healthy young men participated in six experimental trials wearing shorts and t-shirts. Participants exercised for 60 min on a treadmill at low (LOW: 50% of peak VO<sub>2</sub>) and moderate (MOD: 70% VO<sub>2peak</sub>) exercise intensities in a climatic chamber set at 22°C (NT), and in 0°C (COLD) with and without a pre-exercise low-intensity shivering protocol (SHIV). Core and skin temperature, heart rate and oxygen consumption were collected continuously. Blood samples were collected before and at the end of exercise to assess endocrine and immunological changes. Core temperature in NT was greater than COLD and SHIV by 0.4±0.2°C whereas skin temperature in NT was also greater than COLD and SHIV by 8.5±1.4°C and 9.3±2.5°C respectively in MOD. Total testosterone, adenocorticotropin and cortisol were greater in NT <i>vs.</i> COLD and SHIV in MOD. Norepinephrine was greater in NT <i>vs.</i> other conditions across intensities. Interleukin-2, IL-5, IL-7, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, Rantes, Eotaxin, IP-10, MIP-1β, MCP-1, VEGF, PDGF, and G-CSF were elevated in NT <i>vs.</i> COLD and/or SHIV. Furthermore, IFN-γ, MIP-1β, MCP-1, IL-10, VEGF, and PDGF demonstrate greater concentrations in SHIV <i>vs.</i> COLD, mainly in the MOD condition. This study demonstrated that exercising in the cold can diminish the exercise-induced systemic inflammatory response seen in a thermoneutral environment. Nonetheless, prolonged cooling inducing shivering thermogenesis prior to exercise, may induce an immuno-stimulatory response following moderate intensity exercise. Performing exercise in cold environments can be a useful strategy in partially inhibiting the acute systemic inflammatory response from exercise but oppositely, additional body cooling may reverse this benefit.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212247, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Effects_of_Cold_Exposure_on_Leukocytes_Hormones_and_Cytokines_during_Acute_Exercise_in_Humans_/1212247", "title"=>"The Effects of Cold Exposure on Leukocytes, Hormones and Cytokines during Acute Exercise in Humans", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727200"], "description"=>"<p>*, Significant difference between BL and EEx (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>†<p>, Significant difference between BL and EEx across environmental conditions.</p>‡<p>difference between BL and EEx across environmental and exercise conditions</p>A,<p>Significantly different from SHIV (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>B,<p>Significantly different from COLD (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>C,<p>Significantly different from NT (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>D,<p>Significantly different from COLD across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>E,<p>Significantly different from NT across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>F<p>, Significantly different from SHIV across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p><p>Mean ± SD concentrations (ng·ml<sup>−1</sup>) of pro-inflammatory cytokines following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212243, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SD_concentrations_ng_ml_8722_1_of_pro_inflammatory_cytokines_following_60_min_of_low_and_moderate_exercise_in_a_thermoneutral_NT_cold_COLD_and_cold_environment_with_shivering_SHIV_at_baseline_BL_and_at_end_of_exercise_EEx_/1212243", "title"=>"Mean ± SD concentrations (ng·ml<sup>−1</sup>) of pro-inflammatory cytokines following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727199"], "description"=>"<p>*, Significant difference between pre and post (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>†<p>, Significant difference between pre and post across environmental conditions.</p>‡<p>difference between pre and post across environmental and exercise conditions.</p>A,<p>Significantly different from SHIV (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>B,<p>Significantly different from COLD (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>C,<p>Significantly different from NT (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>D,<p>Significantly different from COLD across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>E,<p>Significantly different from NT across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p>F<p>, Significantly different from SHIV across exercise intensities (<i>p</i><0.05).</p><p>Mean ± SD concentrations for total testosterone (TES<sub>tot</sub>), bioavailable testosterone (TES<sub>bio</sub>), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), adenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (COR), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (T<sub>3free</sub>), and free thyroxine (T<sub>4free</sub>) following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mip", "vegf", "il", "exercise", "skin temperature", "vo", "mod", "shiv", "NT vs", "intensity", "pdgf", "ifn", "ip", "response", "mcp"], "article_id"=>1212242, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Dominique D. Gagnon", "Sheila S. Gagnon", "Hannu Rintamäki", "Timo Törmäkangas", "Katri Puukka", "Karl-Heinz Herzig", "Heikki Kyröläinen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110774.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_SD_concentrations_for_total_testosterone_TES_tot_bioavailable_testosterone_TES_bio_sex_hormone_binding_globulin_SHBG_insulin_like_growth_factor_1_IGF_1_adenocorticotropin_hormone_ACTH_cortisol_COR_norepinephrine_NE_epinephrine_Epi_thyroid_stimulatin/1212242", "title"=>"Mean ± SD concentrations for total testosterone (TES<sub>tot</sub>), bioavailable testosterone (TES<sub>bio</sub>), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), adenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (COR), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (Epi), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (T<sub>3free</sub>), and free thyroxine (T<sub>4free</sub>) following 60 min of low and moderate exercise in a thermoneutral (NT), cold (COLD) and cold environment with shivering (SHIV) at baseline (BL) and at end of exercise (EEx).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 02:57:50"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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