Grip Strength across the Life Course: Normative Data from Twelve British Studies
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{"title"=>"Grip strength across the life course: Normative data from twelve British studies", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Richard M.", "last_name"=>"Dodds", "scopus_author_id"=>"55222026100"}, {"first_name"=>"Holly E.", "last_name"=>"Syddall", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701913980"}, {"first_name"=>"Rachel", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"35354537000"}, {"first_name"=>"Michaela", "last_name"=>"Benzeval", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603373510"}, {"first_name"=>"Ian J.", "last_name"=>"Deary", "scopus_author_id"=>"56705691500"}, {"first_name"=>"Elaine M.", "last_name"=>"Dennison", "scopus_author_id"=>"26643483300"}, {"first_name"=>"Geoff", "last_name"=>"Der", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003977653"}, {"first_name"=>"Catharine R.", "last_name"=>"Gale", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102850916"}, {"first_name"=>"Hazel M.", "last_name"=>"Inskip", "scopus_author_id"=>"22998230100"}, {"first_name"=>"Carol", "last_name"=>"Jagger", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006227898"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas B.", "last_name"=>"Kirkwood", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005054642"}, {"first_name"=>"Debbie A.", "last_name"=>"Lawlor", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102452820"}, {"first_name"=>"Sian M.", "last_name"=>"Robinson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402674679"}, {"first_name"=>"John M.", "last_name"=>"Starr", "scopus_author_id"=>"55811330400"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Steptoe", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102289942"}, {"first_name"=>"Kate", "last_name"=>"Tilling", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004134399"}, {"first_name"=>"Diana", "last_name"=>"Kuh", "scopus_author_id"=>"8329745200"}, {"first_name"=>"Cyrus", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"36041345700"}, {"first_name"=>"Avan Aihie", "last_name"=>"Sayer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006450580"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84916226702", "sgr"=>"84916226702", "pui"=>"600684449", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25474696", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0113637"}, "id"=>"b6c82f11-6e56-3823-8df2-b2cc6acb5e9f", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION:Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol.\\n\\nMETHODS:We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing).\\n\\nRESULTS:Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males' peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position.\\n\\nCONCLUSION:This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/grip-strength-across-life-course-normative-data-twelve-british-studies-1", "reader_count"=>172, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>30, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>16, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>31, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>28, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>9, "Student > Master"=>30, "Student > Bachelor"=>30, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>30, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Computer Science"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>6, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>19, "Mathematics"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>65, "Neuroscience"=>5, "Design"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>13, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>65}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>13}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>30}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>5}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>19}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>3}, "group_count"=>6}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1820803"], "description"=>"<p>Centiles shown 10, 25<sup>th</sup>, 50<sup>th</sup>, 75<sup>th</sup> and 90<sup>th</sup>. ADNFS Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, ALSPAC Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ELSA English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, HAS Hertfordshire Ageing Study, HCS Hertfordshire Cohort Study, LBC1921 and LBC1936 Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936, N85 Newcastle 85+ Study, NSHD Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, SWS Southampton Women’s Survey, SWSmp mothers and their partners from the SWS, T-07 West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, UKHLS Understanding Society: the UK Household Panel Study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["age 80. Sensitivity analyses", "measurement", "dynamometer type", "British Studies IntroductionEpidemiological studies", "life course", "centile values", "grip strength", "2.5 SDs"], "article_id"=>1259660, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard M. Dodds", "Holly E. Syddall", "Rachel Cooper", "Michaela Benzeval", "Ian J. Deary", "Elaine M. Dennison", "Geoff Der", "Catharine R. Gale", "Hazel M. Inskip", "Carol Jagger", "Thomas B. Kirkwood", "Debbie A. Lawlor", "Sian M. Robinson", "John M. Starr", "Andrew Steptoe", "Kate Tilling", "Diana Kuh", "Cyrus Cooper", "Avan Aihie Sayer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113637.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cross_cohort_centile_curves_for_grip_strength_/1259660", "title"=>"Cross-cohort centile curves for grip strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-04 02:53:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1820816"], "description"=>"<p>Values shown in brackets are the gender-specific cut-off values calculated by subtracting the relevant number of standard deviations (2 or 2.5) from the young adult peak mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["age 80. Sensitivity analyses", "measurement", "dynamometer type", "British Studies IntroductionEpidemiological studies", "life course", "centile values", "grip strength", "2.5 SDs"], "article_id"=>1259662, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard M. Dodds", "Holly E. Syddall", "Rachel Cooper", "Michaela Benzeval", "Ian J. Deary", "Elaine M. Dennison", "Geoff Der", "Catharine R. Gale", "Hazel M. Inskip", "Carol Jagger", "Thomas B. Kirkwood", "Debbie A. Lawlor", "Sian M. Robinson", "John M. Starr", "Andrew Steptoe", "Kate Tilling", "Diana Kuh", "Cyrus Cooper", "Avan Aihie Sayer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113637.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gender_specific_prevalence_of_weak_grip_strength_based_on_T_scores_of_8722_2_and_8722_2_5_/1259662", "title"=>"Gender-specific prevalence of weak grip strength based on T-scores of −2 and −2.5.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-04 02:53:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1820817"], "description"=>"<p>Studies ordered by age at first wave of data collection, youngest first.</p><p>*With measurement of grip strength.</p>†<p>The number here typically refers to the number of participants seen at the stage of the study where grip strength would normally be measured (e.g. at a clinic visit).</p>‡<p>The wave 2 nurse health assessment in which grip strength was measured was only carried out in England, Scotland and Wales.</p>¶<p>In the first wave of ELSA to measure grip (wave 2), only core study members (n = 8,780) were eligible to take part in the nurse visit and this was completed in the number shown.</p>§<p>80 individuals were aged 90 or older and their exact age is not available.</p><p>**In the second wave of ELSA to measure grip strength (wave 4) only core study members (n = 9,886) core members were eligible to take part in the nurse visit and this was completed in the number shown.</p>||<p>91 individuals were aged 90 or older and their exact age is not available.</p><p>ADNFS Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, ALSPAC Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ELSA English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, HAS Hertfordshire Ageing Study, HCS Hertfordshire Cohort Study, HSE Health Survey for England, LBC1921 and LBC1936 Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936, N85 Newcastle 85+ Study, NSHD Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, SWS Southampton Women’s Survey, T-07 West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, UKHLS Understanding Society: the UK Household Panel Study.</p><p>Study details including protocol used for grip strength.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["age 80. Sensitivity analyses", "measurement", "dynamometer type", "British Studies IntroductionEpidemiological studies", "life course", "centile values", "grip strength", "2.5 SDs"], "article_id"=>1259663, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard M. Dodds", "Holly E. Syddall", "Rachel Cooper", "Michaela Benzeval", "Ian J. Deary", "Elaine M. Dennison", "Geoff Der", "Catharine R. Gale", "Hazel M. Inskip", "Carol Jagger", "Thomas B. Kirkwood", "Debbie A. Lawlor", "Sian M. Robinson", "John M. Starr", "Andrew Steptoe", "Kate Tilling", "Diana Kuh", "Cyrus Cooper", "Avan Aihie Sayer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113637.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_details_including_protocol_used_for_grip_strength_/1259663", "title"=>"Study details including protocol used for grip strength.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-04 02:53:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1820819"], "description"=>"<p>The centiles and mean (SD) values were derived from the GAMLSS models for the exact ages shown.</p><p>*Number of grip strength observations refers to the number of individuals at age shown ±2.5 years (to give an indication of the sample size at different ages).</p>†<p>Limited data were available in the 95+ years category so centile values are not shown.</p><p>Normative values for grip strength, stratified by gender.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["age 80. Sensitivity analyses", "measurement", "dynamometer type", "British Studies IntroductionEpidemiological studies", "life course", "centile values", "grip strength", "2.5 SDs"], "article_id"=>1259665, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard M. Dodds", "Holly E. Syddall", "Rachel Cooper", "Michaela Benzeval", "Ian J. Deary", "Elaine M. Dennison", "Geoff Der", "Catharine R. Gale", "Hazel M. Inskip", "Carol Jagger", "Thomas B. Kirkwood", "Debbie A. Lawlor", "Sian M. Robinson", "John M. Starr", "Andrew Steptoe", "Kate Tilling", "Diana Kuh", "Cyrus Cooper", "Avan Aihie Sayer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113637.t002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Normative_values_for_grip_strength_stratified_by_gender_/1259665", "title"=>"Normative values for grip strength, stratified by gender.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-04 02:53:09"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1820822", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1820823"], "description"=>"<div><p>Introduction</p><p>Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing).</p><p>Results</p><p>Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males’ peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["age 80. Sensitivity analyses", "measurement", "dynamometer type", "British Studies IntroductionEpidemiological studies", "life course", "centile values", "grip strength", "2.5 SDs"], "article_id"=>1259668, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Richard M. Dodds", "Holly E. Syddall", "Rachel Cooper", "Michaela Benzeval", "Ian J. Deary", "Elaine M. Dennison", "Geoff Der", "Catharine R. Gale", "Hazel M. Inskip", "Carol Jagger", "Thomas B. Kirkwood", "Debbie A. Lawlor", "Sian M. Robinson", "John M. Starr", "Andrew Steptoe", "Kate Tilling", "Diana Kuh", "Cyrus Cooper", "Avan Aihie Sayer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113637.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113637.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grip_Strength_across_the_Life_Course_Normative_Data_from_Twelve_British_Studies_/1259668", "title"=>"Grip Strength across the Life Course: Normative Data from Twelve British Studies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-04 02:53:09"}

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Relative Metric

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