Comparative Analysis of Super-Shedder Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Reveals Distinctive Genomic Features and a Strongly Aggregative Adherent Phenotype on Bovine Rectoanal Junction Squamous Epithelial Cells
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{"title"=>"Comparative analysis of super-shedder strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 reveals distinctive genomic features and a strongly aggregative adherent phenotype on bovine rectoanal junction squamous epithelial cells", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rebecca", "last_name"=>"Cote", "scopus_author_id"=>"55480954400"}, {"first_name"=>"Robab", "last_name"=>"Katani", "scopus_author_id"=>"56109284600"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew R.", "last_name"=>"Moreau", "scopus_author_id"=>"56513336700"}, {"first_name"=>"Indira T.", "last_name"=>"Kudva", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603233565"}, {"first_name"=>"Terrance M.", "last_name"=>"Arthur", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004136322"}, {"first_name"=>"Chitrita", "last_name"=>"DebRoy", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603356012"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael M.", "last_name"=>"Mwangi", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602323598"}, {"first_name"=>"Istvan", "last_name"=>"Albert", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005522163"}, {"first_name"=>"Juan Antonio Raygoza", "last_name"=>"Garay", "scopus_author_id"=>"56004421300"}, {"first_name"=>"Lingling", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56109577200"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria T.", "last_name"=>"Brandl", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005162781"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle Q.", "last_name"=>"Carter", "scopus_author_id"=>"36479919000"}, {"first_name"=>"Vivek", "last_name"=>"Kapur", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103095258"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84922656344", "pmid"=>"25664460", "sgr"=>"84922656344", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0116743", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"602177751"}, "id"=>"a354d3cc-cafa-3857-9b94-110f53c113e8", "abstract"=>"Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ). Some colonized animals, referred to as \"super-shedders\" (SS), are known to shed O157 in exceptionally large numbers (>104 CFU/g of feces). Recent studies suggest that SS cattle play a major role in the prevalence and transmission of O157, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with super-shedding. Whole genome sequence analysis of an SS O157 strain (SS17) revealed a genome of 5,523,849 bp chromosome with 5,430 open reading frames and two plasmids, pO157 and pSS17, of 94,645 bp and 37,446 bp, respectively. Comparative analyses showed that SS17 is clustered with spinach-associated O157 outbreak strains, and belongs to the lineage I/II, clade 8, D group, and genotype 1, a subgroup of O157 with predicted hyper-virulence. A large number of non-synonymous SNPs and other polymorphisms were identified in SS17 as compared with other O157 strains (EC4115, EDL933, Sakai, TW14359), including in key adherence- and virulence-related loci. Phenotypic analyses revealed a distinctive and strongly adherent aggregative phenotype of SS17 on bovine RAJ stratified squamous epithelial (RSE) cells that was conserved amongst other SS isolates. Molecular genetic and functional analyses of defined mutants of SS17 suggested that the strongly adherent aggregative phenotype amongst SS isolates is LEE-independent, and likely results from a novel mechanism. Taken together, our study provides a rational framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms associated with SS, and strong evidence that SS O157 isolates have distinctive features and use a LEE-independent mechanism for hyper-adherence to bovine rectal epithelial cells.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-analysis-supershedder-strains-escherichia-coli-o157h7-reveals-distinctive-genomic-featur", "reader_count"=>29, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Chile"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888226"], "description"=>"<p>Larger circle depicts chromosomal DNA with the smaller circles representing the two plasmids. <b>SS17</b>: From inner circle: percent GC (teal); tRNA (green arrowheads); rRNA (purple arrowheads); ORFs (forward direction-dark blue, reverse-light blue); location of phage (black bars) and LEE operons (pink); Shiga toxin II genes (red arrowheads); <b>pSS17</b>: percent GC (teal); ORFs (blue); <b>pO157</b>: percent GC (teal); ORFs (blue); hemolysin genes (purple), <i>toxB</i> gene (green) and <i>etp</i> operon (pink).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304800, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genome_map_of_SS17_/1304800", "title"=>"Genome map of SS17.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888235"], "description"=>"<p>* All regions contain at least one integrase</p><p>Genes encoded in the 22 phage regions of SS17.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304809, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genes_encoded_in_the_22_phage_regions_of_SS17_/1304809", "title"=>"Genes encoded in the 22 phage regions of SS17.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888233"], "description"=>"<p>Pooled antisera against LEE-encoded proteins (EspA, EspB, Tir, and Intimin) were used to elucidate to mechanisms of adherence. (A) Adherence of SS17 on bovine RSE cells revealed a LEE-independent mechanism while decreased adherence of SS17 on human HEp-2 cells showed a LEE-dependent mechanism of attachment. (B) Top panel, immunofluorescence (IF) stained images show adherence of SS17 to RSE cells and HEp-2 cells in the absence of antisera. Bottom panel, IF slide shows SS17 attachment to RSE cells, and the toluidine blue (TB) stained slide lack of adherence of SS17 to HEp-2 cells, in the presence of antisera. (C) Quantification of SS17 wild type, SS17Δeae, and SS17ΔeaeH to RSE cells, displaying no change in the adherence characteristics of mutants in comparison to wild type SS17. (D) Top panel. SS17Δeae and SS17ΔeaeH were confirmed by PCR. Lane 1 represent the gene of interest in wild type SS17, lane 2 the absence of the kanamycin gene in wild type SS17, lane 3 the gene of interest in the mutants and lane 4 the insertion of the kanamycin cassette in the mutants. (D) Bottom panel. Immunofluorescence stained slides indicate no change in adherence for SS17Δeae and SS17ΔeaeH mutants on RSE cells. All slides are at 40x magnification, and have arrows pointing to SS17 bacteria (green); with RSE cytokeratins and HEp2 actin filaments in red, and nuclei of both cells in blue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304807, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>50, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adherence_pattern_of_SS17_on_RSE_and_HEp_2_cells_in_the_presence_of_antisera_/1304807", "title"=>"Adherence pattern of SS17 on RSE and HEp-2 cells in the presence of antisera.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888234"], "description"=>"<p>Genome statistics of SS17 and reference O157 strains.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304808, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genome_statistics_of_SS17_and_reference_O157_strains_/1304808", "title"=>"Genome statistics of SS17 and reference O157 strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888232"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Quantification of SS17, EDL933, and 86–24-SmR adherence to RSE and HEp-2 cells in the presences of D+Mannose. SS17 displays a strong adherence to RSE cells and only moderate adherence to HEp-2 cells. (B) Immunofluorescence stained slides reveled that both SS17 and EDL933 displayed an aggregative adherence pattern on RSE cells while 86–24 displayed a diffuse pattern. All strains demonstrated a diffuse adherence pattern on HEp-2 cells (not shown). (C) Average of adherence levels for nine super-shedder isolates, which all displayed strong, aggregative adherence to RSE cells, that can be seen in the representative immunofluorescence stained slide. Arrows point to adherent bacteria (green). Slides are shown at 40x magnification with RSE cytokeratin (red) and nuclei (blue).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304806, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adherence_patterns_of_O157_strains_SS17_EDL933_and_86_24_Sm_R_to_RSE_cells_/1304806", "title"=>"Adherence patterns of O157 strains SS17, EDL933, and 86–24-Sm<sup>R</sup> to RSE cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888229"], "description"=>"<p>Whole genome analysis shows SS17 clusters with the lineage I/II spinach outbreak isolates (EC4115 and TW14359). This indicates a closer relationship with these strains than with the lineage I outbreak isolates (Sakai and EDL933) and the bovine lineage II isolates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304803, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cladogram_of_SS17_and_O157_outbreak_strains_/1304803", "title"=>"Cladogram of SS17 and O157 outbreak strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888228"], "description"=>"<p>The levels of Stx2 produced by SS17 were unaffected by induction and showed higher levels of Stx2 in uninduced cultures when compared to Sakai.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304802, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stx2_induction_in_SS17_and_Sakai_strains_/1304802", "title"=>"Stx2 induction in SS17 and Sakai strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888236", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888237", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888238", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888239", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888240", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888241", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888242", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888243", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888244"], "description"=>"<div><p>Shiga toxin-producing <i>Escherichia coli</i> O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157 are asymptomatic cattle which harbor the organism in the terminal recto-anal junction (RAJ). Some colonized animals, referred to as “super-shedders” (SS), are known to shed O157 in exceptionally large numbers (>104 CFU/g of feces). Recent studies suggest that SS cattle play a major role in the prevalence and transmission of O157, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with super-shedding. Whole genome sequence analysis of an SS O157 strain (SS17) revealed a genome of 5,523,849 bp chromosome with 5,430 open reading frames and two plasmids, pO157 and pSS17, of 94,645 bp and 37,446 bp, respectively. Comparative analyses showed that SS17 is clustered with spinach-associated O157 outbreak strains, and belongs to the lineage I/II, clade 8, D group, and genotype 1, a subgroup of O157 with predicted hyper-virulence. A large number of non-synonymous SNPs and other polymorphisms were identified in SS17 as compared with other O157 strains (EC4115, EDL933, Sakai, TW14359), including in key adherence- and virulence-related loci. Phenotypic analyses revealed a distinctive and strongly adherent aggregative phenotype of SS17 on bovine RAJ stratified squamous epithelial (RSE) cells that was conserved amongst other SS isolates. Molecular genetic and functional analyses of defined mutants of SS17 suggested that the strongly adherent aggregative phenotype amongst SS isolates is LEE-independent, and likely results from a novel mechanism. Taken together, our study provides a rational framework for investigating the molecular mechanisms associated with SS, and strong evidence that SS O157 isolates have distinctive features and use a LEE-independent mechanism for hyper-adherence to bovine rectal epithelial cells.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304810, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>57, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparative_Analysis_of_Super_Shedder_Strains_of_Escherichia_coli_O157_H7_Reveals_Distinctive_Genomic_Features_and_a_Strongly_Aggregative_Adherent_Phenotype_on_Bovine_Rectoanal_Junction_Squamous_Epithelial_Cells/1304810", "title"=>"Comparative Analysis of Super-Shedder Strains of <i>Escherichia coli</i> O157:H7 Reveals Distinctive Genomic Features and a Strongly Aggregative Adherent Phenotype on Bovine Rectoanal Junction Squamous Epithelial Cells", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888231"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the SS17 genome shows a high density of SNPs clustered in phage regions. From outer ring: select genes with nsSNPs (red arrows), SS17 phage regions (black bars) with LEE operon (pink bar), SNP distribution when compared to Sakai (blue), EDL933 (green), TW14359 (red), and EC4115 (purple).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304805, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>44, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_SNP_distribution_in_the_SS17_genome_/1304805", "title"=>"SNP distribution in the SS17 genome.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888230"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Alignment of SS17 with the four reference strains (TW14359, EC4115, EDL933, and Sakai) reveal six blocks of homology each of varying length ranging from ~50kb to ~2280kb. Each block is a different color with lines connecting corresponding homologous blocks, with the white regions indicating non-homology. (B) Part of block 4 corresponding to phage region 11 is enlarged indicating the differences in the varying colors between SS17 and the reference strains which can also be seen in the annotations (white bars underneath).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304804, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mauve_alignments_of_SS17_with_the_four_reference_genomes_/1304804", "title"=>"Mauve alignments of SS17 with the four reference genomes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1888227"], "description"=>"<p>Location of phage regions were determined in each strain and color coordinated based on insertion sites and similarities. From inner ring: number designation for SS17 phage regions, phage locations: SS17, EC4115, TW14359, EDL933 and Sakai, and S-loop numbers for Sakai phage. Black arrows indicate regions of phage that are present in SS17 and not in EDL933 and Sakai. Pink arrows indicated regions that are translocated in SS17 compared to EDL933 and Sakai.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["raj", "Whole genome sequence analysis", "O 157 strains", "snp", "Aggregative Adherent Phenotype", "ec", "O 157", "SS O 157", "aggregative phenotype", "SS 17", "edl", "Distinctive Genomic Features", "rse", "SS O 157 strain", "rectal epithelial cells", "tw", "cfu"], "article_id"=>1304801, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Rebecca Cote", "Robab Katani", "Matthew R. Moreau", "Indira T. Kudva", "Terrance M. Arthur", "Chitrita DebRoy", "Michael M. Mwangi", "István Albert", "Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay", "Lingling Li", "Maria T. Brandl", "Michelle Q. Carter", "Vivek Kapur"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0116743.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phage_Comparisons_between_SS17_and_reference_strains_/1304801", "title"=>"Phage Comparisons between SS17 and reference strains.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-09 02:59:12"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"43", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"11", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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