Bacteria Isolated from Bats Inhibit the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome
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{"title"=>"Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joseph R.", "last_name"=>"Hoyt", "scopus_author_id"=>"56373309400"}, {"first_name"=>"Tina L.", "last_name"=>"Cheng", "scopus_author_id"=>"56376149000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kate E.", "last_name"=>"Langwig", "scopus_author_id"=>"36571797800"}, {"first_name"=>"Mallory M.", "last_name"=>"Hee", "scopus_author_id"=>"56622739000"}, {"first_name"=>"Winifred F.", "last_name"=>"Frick", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005669251"}, {"first_name"=>"A. Marm", "last_name"=>"Kilpatrick", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003746164"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928911460", "sgr"=>"84928911460", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0121329", "pmid"=>"25853558", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"604108478"}, "id"=>"a10dc444-da14-3f51-ace6-e96dc9edafbe", "abstract"=>"Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/bacteria-isolated-bats-inhibit-growth-pseudogymnoascus-destructans-causative-agent-whitenose-syndrom", "reader_count"=>117, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>32, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>15, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>32, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>22, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>8, "Environmental Science"=>17, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>74, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>74}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>17}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>12, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Indonesia"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011100"], "description"=>"<p>Bacteria were plated with an initial starting concentration of 10<sup>4</sup> cfu/ml (PF2). The plate (a) shows no visible <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> growth on day 43, compared to the (b) control plate showing uninhibited <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> colony growth at day 43. (d) The zones of inhibition produced by one of the top performing <i>P</i>. <i>fluorescens</i> isolates (PF2) compared to the sham inoculated control (c) and a widely used strain of <i>P</i>. <i>fluorescens</i>, (e; PF7: <i>Pf</i>A506). There are two distinct zones of inhibition produced by the top performing strain (as shown in panel d) indicated by the grey solid circle and the dashed grey circle. Microscopic images of the inner and outer zones are shown in panels (f) and (g). We used gram staining techniques to help better visualize conidia (purple) and hyphae (pink) (scale bars, 10 μm). Within the first zone, indicated by the dark ring surrounding the yellow bacteria colony (PF2), the bacteria either arrested or delayed conidia growth, (g) which can be seen by the small hyphael extension from the conidia. Outside of this first zone, the growth of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> was much more extensive (f), producing a mycelial network before its growth was arrested.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["destructans growth", "bacteria", "challenge experiments", "hibernating bat species", "skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans"], "article_id"=>1372216, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joseph R. Hoyt", "Tina L. Cheng", "Kate E. Langwig", "Mallory M. Hee", "Winifred F. Frick", "A. Marm Kilpatrick"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Challenge_plates_showing_the_inhibition_of_Pseudogymnoascus_destructans_/1372216", "title"=>"Challenge plates showing the inhibition of <i>Pseudogymnoascus destructans</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-08 04:22:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011105", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011106", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011107", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011108", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011109", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011110", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011111"], "description"=>"<div><p>Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen <i>Pseudogymnoascus destructans</i>, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i>. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments <i>in vitro</i> with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus <i>Pseudomonas</i>) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i>. All six <i>Pseudomonas</i> isolates significantly inhibited growth of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> growth was dependent on the initial concentration of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans in vitro</i> and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["destructans growth", "bacteria", "challenge experiments", "hibernating bat species", "skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans"], "article_id"=>1372221, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joseph R. Hoyt", "Tina L. Cheng", "Kate E. Langwig", "Mallory M. Hee", "Winifred F. Frick", "A. Marm Kilpatrick"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bacteria_Isolated_from_Bats_Inhibit_the_Growth_of_Pseudogymnoascus_destructans_the_Causative_Agent_of_White_Nose_Syndrome/1372221", "title"=>"Bacteria Isolated from Bats Inhibit the Growth of <i>Pseudogymnoascus destructans</i>, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-08 04:22:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011103"], "description"=>"<p><i>Pseudogymnoascus destructans</i> was plated with nine bacterial isolates at six different concentrations (highest to lowest, left to right). Lines denoted by the same letter did not differ significantly on the last day of the experiment. CHR and SPH are isolates in the genus <i>Chryseobacterium</i> and <i>Sphingomonas</i> that are not known to produce antifungal compounds. The Control is a sham inoculation of 30% glycerol stock. PF1-7 and PA6 are all isolates in the genus <i>Pseudomonas</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["destructans growth", "bacteria", "challenge experiments", "hibernating bat species", "skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans"], "article_id"=>1372219, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joseph R. Hoyt", "Tina L. Cheng", "Kate E. Langwig", "Mallory M. Hee", "Winifred F. Frick", "A. Marm Kilpatrick"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Second_inhibition_assay_measuring_the_diameter_of_P_destructans_colonies_grown_on_a_lawn_of_bacteria_/1372219", "title"=>"Second inhibition assay measuring the diameter of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i> colonies grown on a lawn of bacteria.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-08 04:22:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011104"], "description"=>"<p>Bacteria isolated from <i>Myotis lucifugus</i> and <i>Eptesicus fuscus</i> used in challenge experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["destructans growth", "bacteria", "challenge experiments", "hibernating bat species", "skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans"], "article_id"=>1372220, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joseph R. Hoyt", "Tina L. Cheng", "Kate E. Langwig", "Mallory M. Hee", "Winifred F. Frick", "A. Marm Kilpatrick"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacteria_isolated_from_Myotis_lucifugus_and_Eptesicus_fuscus_used_in_challenge_experiments_/1372220", "title"=>"Bacteria isolated from <i>Myotis lucifugus</i> and <i>Eptesicus fuscus</i> used in challenge experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-08 04:22:12"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2011101"], "description"=>"<p>The zones of inhibition produced by bacterial isolates when inoculated on a plate with four concentrations of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i>. Lines denoted by the same letter do not differ significantly on the last day of the experiment (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329#pone.0121329.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S5 Table</a>). CHR and SPH are isolates in the genus <i>Chryseobacterium</i> and <i>Sphingomonas</i> that are not known to produce antifungal compounds. The control is an inoculation of 30% glycerol stock. PF1-5,7 and PA6 are all isolates in the genus <i>Pseudomonas</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["destructans growth", "bacteria", "challenge experiments", "hibernating bat species", "skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans"], "article_id"=>1372217, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joseph R. Hoyt", "Tina L. Cheng", "Kate E. Langwig", "Mallory M. Hee", "Winifred F. Frick", "A. Marm Kilpatrick"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121329.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_First_inhibition_assay_measuring_the_width_of_the_zone_of_inhibition_produced_by_bacteria_on_a_lawn_of_P_destructans_/1372217", "title"=>"First inhibition assay measuring the width of the zone of inhibition produced by bacteria on a lawn of <i>P</i>. <i>destructans</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-08 04:22:12"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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