Angiogenesis Is Induced and Wound Size Is Reduced by Electrical Stimulation in an Acute Wound Healing Model in Human Skin
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{"title"=>"Angiogenesis is induced and wound size is reduced by electrical stimulation in an acute wound healing model in human skin", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sara", "last_name"=>"Ud-Din", "scopus_author_id"=>"55443937300"}, {"first_name"=>"Anil", "last_name"=>"Sebastian", "scopus_author_id"=>"22434444600"}, {"first_name"=>"Pamela", "last_name"=>"Giddings", "scopus_author_id"=>"22034500600"}, {"first_name"=>"James", "last_name"=>"Colthurst", "scopus_author_id"=>"10440322600"}, {"first_name"=>"Sigrid", "last_name"=>"Whiteside", "scopus_author_id"=>"54796054400"}, {"first_name"=>"Julie", "last_name"=>"Morris", "scopus_author_id"=>"56493700800"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard", "last_name"=>"Nuccitelli", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004456587"}, {"first_name"=>"Christine", "last_name"=>"Pullar", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603466520"}, {"first_name"=>"Mo", "last_name"=>"Baguneid", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193818294"}, {"first_name"=>"Ardeshir", "last_name"=>"Bayat", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005903280"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"604050503", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0124502", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928749384", "pmid"=>"25928356", "sgr"=>"84928749384"}, "id"=>"eb03dff4-bb03-3187-8452-a6310ee409a0", "abstract"=>"Angiogenesis is critical for wound healing. Insufficient angiogenesis can result in impaired wound healing and chronic wound formation. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance angiogenesis. We previously showed that ES enhanced angiogenesis in acute wounds at one time point (day 14). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of ES in affecting angiogenesis during the acute phase of cutaneous wound healing over multiple time points. We compared the angiogenic response to wounding in 40 healthy volunteers (divided into two groups and randomised), treated with ES (post-ES) and compared them to secondary intention wound healing (control). Biopsy time points monitored were days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14. Objective non-invasive measures and H&E analysis were performed in addition to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). Wound volume was significantly reduced on D7, 10 and 14 post-ES (p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p<0.001 respectively), surface area was reduced on days 10 (p = 0.001) and 14 (p<0.001) and wound diameter reduced on days 10 (p = 0.009) and 14 (p = 0.002). Blood flow increased significantly post-ES on D10 (p = 0.002) and 14 (p = 0.001). Angiogenic markers were up-regulated following ES application; protein analysis by IHC showed an increase (p<0.05) in VEGF-A expression by ES treatment on days 7, 10 and 14 (39%, 27% and 35% respectively) and PLGF expression on days 3 and 7 (40% on both days), compared to normal healing. Similarly, WB demonstrated an increase (p<0.05) in PLGF on days 7 and 14 (51% and 35% respectively). WB studies showed a significant increase of 30% (p>0.05) on day 14 in VEGF-A expression post-ES compared to controls. Furthermore, organisation of granulation tissue was improved on day 14 post-ES. This randomised controlled trial has shown that ES enhanced wound healing by reduced wound dimensions and increased VEGF-A and PLGF expression in acute cutaneous wounds, which further substantiates the role of ES in up-regulating angiogenesis as observed over multiple time points. This therapeutic approach may have potential application for clinical management of delayed and chronic wounds.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/angiogenesis-induced-wound-size-reduced-electrical-stimulation-acute-wound-healing-model-human-skin", "reader_count"=>53, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. 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Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Engineering"=>12, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>4}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>12}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Iran"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Taiwan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "France"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046047"], "description"=>"<p>A. Immunohistochemical analysis of VEGF-A. VEGF-A was significantly up-regulated on days 7, 10 and 14 of ES treated tissues compared to normal healing tissues of respective days. Number of vessels were also increased on day 14 ES treated tissues compared to normal healing tissues. Arrows/area inside the dotted lines indicate VEGF<sup>+</sup> cells/area. B. Western blotting of VEGF-A. Protein analysis by Western blotting showed increase on day 14 ES treated tissues compared to control. C. Gene analysis of VEGF-A on different healing days showed up-regulation in ES treated tissues, compared to control. Grey bars—Normal cutaneous healing process. Black bars—Electrical stimulation assisted cutaneous healing process. * shows significant difference (p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399266, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_VEGF_A_protein_and_gene_analysis_showed_up_regulation_in_ES_treated_samples_/1399266", "title"=>"VEGF-A protein and gene analysis showed up-regulation in ES treated samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046052"], "description"=>"<p>A. Immunohistochemical analysis of PLGF. PLGF was significantly up-regulated on days 3 and 7 of ES treated tissues compared to control of respective days. Even though ES treated tissues showed increase of 21% and 23% on days 10 and 14 respectively when compared to control, the results were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The arrows indicate PLGF<sup>+</sup> cells. B. Western blotting of PLGF. Protein analysis by Western blotting showed significant increase of PLGF on days 7 and 14 in ES treated tissues compared to normal healing tissues. C. Gene analysis of VEGF-A on different healing days showed up-regulation in ES treated tissues on days 10 and 14, compared to control. Grey bars—Normal cutaneous healing process. Black bars—Electrical stimulation assisted cutaneous healing process. * shows significant difference (p<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399271, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PLGF_protein_and_gene_analysis_showed_up_regulation_in_ES_treated_samples_/1399271", "title"=>"PLGF protein and gene analysis showed up-regulation in ES treated samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046053"], "description"=>"<p>Difference: Post ES—control</p><p>p-values from unadjusted paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test</p><p>Electrical Field (mV/mm): Median (Range) for biopsy arms and differences in biopsy arms.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399272, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Electrical_Field_mV_mm_Median_Range_for_biopsy_arms_and_differences_in_biopsy_arms_/1399272", "title"=>"Electrical Field (mV/mm): Median (Range) for biopsy arms and differences in biopsy arms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046055", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046056", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046057", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046058", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046059", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046060", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046061", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046062", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046063", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046064"], "description"=>"<div><p>Angiogenesis is critical for wound healing. Insufficient angiogenesis can result in impaired wound healing and chronic wound formation. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to enhance angiogenesis. We previously showed that ES enhanced angiogenesis in acute wounds at one time point (day 14). The aim of this study was to further evaluate the role of ES in affecting angiogenesis during the acute phase of cutaneous wound healing over multiple time points. We compared the angiogenic response to wounding in 40 healthy volunteers (divided into two groups and randomised), treated with ES (post-ES) and compared them to secondary intention wound healing (control). Biopsy time points monitored were days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14. Objective non-invasive measures and H&E analysis were performed in addition to immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). Wound volume was significantly reduced on D7, 10 and 14 post-ES (p = 0.003, p = 0.002, p<0.001 respectively), surface area was reduced on days 10 (p = 0.001) and 14 (p<0.001) and wound diameter reduced on days 10 (p = 0.009) and 14 (p = 0.002). Blood flow increased significantly post-ES on D10 (p = 0.002) and 14 (p = 0.001). Angiogenic markers were up-regulated following ES application; protein analysis by IHC showed an increase (p<0.05) in VEGF-A expression by ES treatment on days 7, 10 and 14 (39%, 27% and 35% respectively) and PLGF expression on days 3 and 7 (40% on both days), compared to normal healing. Similarly, WB demonstrated an increase (p<0.05) in PLGF on days 7 and 14 (51% and 35% respectively). WB studies showed a significant increase of 30% (p>0.05) on day 14 in VEGF-A expression post-ES compared to controls. Furthermore, organisation of granulation tissue was improved on day 14 post-ES. This randomised controlled trial has shown that ES enhanced wound healing by reduced wound dimensions and increased VEGF-A and PLGF expression in acute cutaneous wounds, which further substantiates the role of ES in up-regulating angiogenesis as observed over multiple time points. This therapeutic approach may have potential application for clinical management of delayed and chronic wounds.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399274, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Angiogenesis_Is_Induced_and_Wound_Size_Is_Reduced_by_Electrical_Stimulation_in_an_Acute_Wound_Healing_Model_in_Human_Skin_/1399274", "title"=>"Angiogenesis Is Induced and Wound Size Is Reduced by Electrical Stimulation in an Acute Wound Healing Model in Human Skin", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046031"], "description"=>"<p>A. A flowchart outlining the methodology of the study for cohort 1. Time points for this cohort were at days 0, 3, 7, 10, 12, 14, 30, 60 and 90. B. A flowchart outlining the methodology for the study for cohort 2. Time points for this cohort were at days 0, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399250, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flowcharts_outlining_the_study_methodology_/1399250", "title"=>"Flowcharts outlining the study methodology.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046033"], "description"=>"<p>A. Two 5mm punch biopsies were performed in the inner upper arm. B. One 7mm punch biopsy was used to excise one of the previous biopsy sites. C. A further 7mm punch biopsy was performed to encompass the second previous biopsy site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399252, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Illustrations_to_demonstrate_the_punch_biopsy_method_/1399252", "title"=>"Illustrations to demonstrate the punch biopsy method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046036"], "description"=>"<p>A. Images from the 3-dimensional camera are shown which demonstrate the size of the biopsy wound sites are smaller post electrical stimulation (ES) compared to the control. The normal wound image is displayed with the difference in heights images corresponding shown below. The difference in heights images show the highest points are indicated in red and yellow, whilst the lowest points are displayed as green and blue. B. Images from the full-field laser perfusion imager at each time point demonstrating the blood flow for the control and post-ES arm. The differences in blood flow (flux) in the biopsy sites are depicted by the change of colour intensity in the images.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399255, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Images_produced_from_the_non_invasive_imaging_devices_/1399255", "title"=>"Images produced from the non-invasive imaging devices.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046037"], "description"=>"<p>A graph collating the results from this electrical stimulation (ES) temporal punch biopsy study which displays a representation of the trends found for all of the time points combined. Each line represents the trend for the post-ES arm for each parameter and displays the points at which these were statistically significant. The different objective non-invasive devices, which were used are shown on the y-axis and the measurements taken for each are presented by a different colour line on the graph. The statistical significances found are highlighted on the graph (* = statistical significance). 3-dimensional (3D) imaging showed that the wound surface area was significantly lower on days 10, 14, 30 60 and 90 following the application of ES. Wound volume was significantly reduced post-ES on days 7, 10 and 14. Wound diameter was significantly lower on days 10, 14 and 90 following ES. Full-field laser perfusion imaging (FLPI) demonstrated a significant increase in blood flow at days 10 and 14 following the application of ES. Furthermore, the Dermacorder showed that the electrical field (EF) at the wound edges were increased post-ES although not significantly.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399256, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_graph_demonstrating_a_representation_of_the_trends_noted_/1399256", "title"=>"A graph demonstrating a representation of the trends noted.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046040"], "description"=>"<p>Hematoxylin and Eosin staining on days 7 and 10 on normal healing tissues and corresponding ES treated healing tissues.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399259, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hematoxylin_and_Eosin_staining_healing_day_7_and_10_/1399259", "title"=>"Hematoxylin and Eosin staining (healing day 7 and 10).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2046043"], "description"=>"<p>Hematoxylin and Eosin staining on days 0 (NSD0 or normal skin) and 14 of normal healing tissues (NSD14) and ES treated healing tissues (ESD14). ES samples showed a similar phenotype to normal skin with better wound bed re-organisation and accelerated granulation tissue stage development. ED is epidermis, DE is dermis, GT is granulation tissue, FT is fat/adipose tissue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["wb", "days 10", "Biopsy time points", "ihc", "cutaneous wound healing", "angiogenesi", "Human Skin Angiogenesis", "es", "time points", "PLGF expression", "wound healing", "intention wound healing", "Acute Wound Healing Model"], "article_id"=>1399262, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Sara Ud-Din", "Anil Sebastian", "Pamela Giddings", "James Colthurst", "Sigrid Whiteside", "Julie Morris", "Richard Nuccitelli", "Christine Pullar", "Mo Baguneid", "Ardeshir Bayat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124502.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>414, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hematoxylin_and_Eosin_staining_normal_skin_and_healing_day_14_/1399262", "title"=>"Hematoxylin and Eosin staining (normal skin and healing day 14).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-04-30 02:42:45"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"7", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"10", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"13", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"14", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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