Autonomic Effects of Music in Health and Crohn's Disease: The Impact of Isochronicity, Emotional Valence, and Tempo
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{"title"=>"Autonomic effects of music in health and Crohn's disease: The impact of isochronicity, emotional valence, and tempo", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roland Uwe", "last_name"=>"Krabs", "scopus_author_id"=>"57103804600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronny", "last_name"=>"Enk", "scopus_author_id"=>"15076905400"}, {"first_name"=>"Niels", "last_name"=>"Teich", "scopus_author_id"=>"57103040500"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Koelsch", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003503324"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84947243927", "sgr"=>"84947243927", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0126224", "pmid"=>"25955253", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"608067885"}, "id"=>"d8c6962b-f62c-3cd4-beef-57d54ee285bc", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a) whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music) is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b) whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c) whether emotional valence of music influences ANS effects; and (d) whether music-elicited ANS effects are comparable in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn´s disease (CD, an inflammatory bowel disease suspected to be associated with autonomic dysfunction).\\n\\nMETHODS: To address these issues, three experiments were conducted, with a total of n = 138 healthy subjects and n = 19 CD patients. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded while participants listened to joyful pleasant music, isochronous tones, and unpleasant control stimuli.\\n\\nRESULTS: Compared to silence, both pleasant music and unpleasant control stimuli elicited an increase in HR and a decrease in a variety of HRV parameters. Surprisingly, similar ANS effects were elicited by isochronous tones (i.e., simply by a tactus). ANS effects did not differ between pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, and different tempi of the music did not entrain ANS activity. Finally, music-evoked ANS effects did not differ between healthy individuals and CD patients.\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: The isochronous pulse of music (i.e., the tactus) is a major factor of music-evoked ANS effects. These ANS effects are characterized by increased sympathetic activity. The emotional valence of a musical piece contributes surprisingly little to the ANS activity changes evoked by that piece.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/autonomic-effects-music-health-crohns-disease-impact-isochronicity-emotional-valence-tempo", "reader_count"=>39, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>8, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>10, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>6}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335124"], "description"=>"<p>A, B, and C show 30 second samples of a triplet of corresponding acoustic stimuli used. Notice that the isochronous tones in B and C have identical tempi as the stimulus in A. D demonstrates the sequence of one trial. Twenty-five such trials with different stimuli were presented. Before and after each auditory stimulus, short sinus tone sequences (indicated by the two notes in the figure) were used to notify the subjects that a trial will start, respectively the rating procedure will follow.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671840, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Stimuli_and_procedure_of_Experiment_1_/2671840", "title"=>"Stimuli and procedure of Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335175"], "description"=>"<p>All acoustic stimuli increased the sum of electrodermal activity amplitudes compared to silence. Although interquartile ranges were relatively wide, the effects were significant. This indicates a greater sympathetic output during the acoustical stimuli. <i>Pleasant</i>: pleasant music; <i>Unpleasant</i>: music-like noise; *: <i>p</i> < .05; **: <i>p</i> < .01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671873, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Electrodermal_activity_results_of_Experiment_1_/2671873", "title"=>"Electrodermal activity results of Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335211"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of participants in Experiment 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671909, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Characteristics_of_participants_in_Experiment_3_/2671909", "title"=>"Characteristics of participants in Experiment 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335130"], "description"=>"<p>The acoustic stimuli generally increased the heart rate compared to silence. Although interquartile ranges were relatively wide, the effects were highly significant in Experiment 1 and 3. This indicates a larger sympathetic output during the acoustic stimuli. <i>Pleasant</i>: pleasant music; <i>Unpleasant</i>: music-like noise (Exp. 1 & 3) and unpleasant music (Exp. 2); *: <i>p</i> < .05; ***: <i>p</i> < .001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671846, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Heart_rate_results_of_all_three_Experiments_/2671846", "title"=>"Heart rate results of all three Experiments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335214"], "description"=>"<p>Clinical characteristics of Crohn′s disease patients of Experiment 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671912, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Clinical_characteristics_of_Crohn_s_disease_patients_of_Experiment_3_/2671912", "title"=>"Clinical characteristics of Crohn′s disease patients of Experiment 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335184"], "description"=>"<p>The acoustic stimuli decreased most of the heart rate variability parameters compared to silence, thus generally reproducing the results of Experiment 1. Note the similar results of the slow (90 bpm) and fast (120 bpm) versions of pleasant music and unpleasant music. This indicates that such a tempo difference does not entrain different heart rate variability. <i>Lg</i>: indicates logarithmized data where transformation was applied; <i>Pleasant</i>: pleasant music; <i>Unpleas</i>.: unpleasant music; *: <i>p</i> < .05; **: <i>p</i> < .01; ***: <i>p</i> < .001. For description of HRV parameters see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224#pone.0126224.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671882, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Heart_rate_variability_results_of_Experiment_2_/2671882", "title"=>"Heart rate variability results of Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335220"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of heart rate and heart rate variability effects of pleasant music compared to silence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671918, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Summary_of_heart_rate_and_heart_rate_variability_effects_of_pleasant_music_compared_to_silence_/2671918", "title"=>"Summary of heart rate and heart rate variability effects of pleasant music compared to silence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335049", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335085", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335091", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335094", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335097", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335103", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335106", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335109", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335112", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335082", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335079", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335076", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335052", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335055", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335058", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335061", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335064", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335067", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335070", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335073", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335118"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Music can evoke strong emotions and thus elicit significant autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. However, previous studies investigating music-evoked ANS effects produced inconsistent results. In particular, it is not clear (a) whether simply a musical tactus (without common emotional components of music) is sufficient to elicit ANS effects; (b) whether changes in the tempo of a musical piece contribute to the ANS effects; (c) whether emotional valence of music influences ANS effects; and (d) whether music-elicited ANS effects are comparable in healthy subjects and patients with Crohn´s disease (CD, an inflammatory bowel disease suspected to be associated with autonomic dysfunction).</p><p>Methods</p><p>To address these issues, three experiments were conducted, with a total of <i>n</i> = 138 healthy subjects and <i>n</i> = 19 CD patients. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded while participants listened to joyful pleasant music, isochronous tones, and unpleasant control stimuli.</p><p>Results</p><p>Compared to silence, both pleasant music and unpleasant control stimuli elicited an increase in HR and a decrease in a variety of HRV parameters. Surprisingly, similar ANS effects were elicited by isochronous tones (i.e., simply by a tactus). ANS effects did not differ between pleasant and unpleasant stimuli, and different tempi of the music did not entrain ANS activity. Finally, music-evoked ANS effects did not differ between healthy individuals and CD patients.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>The isochronous pulse of music (i.e., the tactus) is a major factor of music-evoked ANS effects. These ANS effects are characterized by increased sympathetic activity. The emotional valence of a musical piece contributes surprisingly little to the ANS activity changes evoked by that piece.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671825, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.s021"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Autonomic_Effects_of_Music_in_Health_and_Crohn_s_Disease_The_Impact_of_Isochronicity_Emotional_Valence_and_Tempo/2671825", "title"=>"Autonomic Effects of Music in Health and Crohn's Disease: The Impact of Isochronicity, Emotional Valence, and Tempo", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335160"], "description"=>"<p>All acoustic stimuli decreased all heart rate variability parameters compared to silence except the LF/HF ratio. This is taken to indicate a reduced parasympathetic output during the acoustic stimuli. Notice that the effects with the isochronous tones, and music-like noise stimuli were qualitatively comparable to the pleasant music stimuli. <i>Lg</i>: indicates logarithmized data where transformation was applied; <i>Pleasant</i>: pleasant music; <i>Unpleasant</i>: music-like noise; *: <i>p</i> < .05; **: <i>p</i> < .01; ***: <i>p</i> < .001. For description of HRV parameters see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224#pone.0126224.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671858, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Heart_rate_variability_results_of_Experiment_1_/2671858", "title"=>"Heart rate variability results of Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335193"], "description"=>"<p>The acoustic stimuli decreased all heart rate variability parameters compared to silence except the LF/HF ratio, thus reproducing the results of Experiment 1 and 2. Note the generally similar results of healthy subjects and Crohn′s disease patients. This demonstrates that Crohn′s disease is not per se characterized by a different autonomic tone or autonomic reactivity. <i>Lg</i>: indicates logarithmized data where transformation was applied; <i>Pleasant</i>: pleasant music; <i>Unpleasant</i>: music-like noise; *: <i>p</i> < .05; **: <i>p</i> < .01; ***: <i>p</i> < .001. For description of HRV parameters see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224#pone.0126224.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671891, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Heart_rate_variability_results_of_Experiment_3_/2671891", "title"=>"Heart rate variability results of Experiment 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335226"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of heart rate and heart rate variability effects of isochronous tones, music-like noise, and unpleasant music compared to silence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671924, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Summary_of_heart_rate_and_heart_rate_variability_effects_of_isochronous_tones_music_like_noise_and_unpleasant_music_compared_to_silence_/2671924", "title"=>"Summary of heart rate and heart rate variability effects of isochronous tones, music-like noise, and unpleasant music compared to silence.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4335202"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["HRV", "CD patients.ConclusionsThe isochronous pulse", "HR", "ANS activity changes", "music influences ANS effects", "isochronous tones", "EDA", "entrain ANS activity", "ANS effects", "19 CD patients"], "article_id"=>2671900, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Genetics", "Neuroscience", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Roland Uwe Krabs", "Ronny Enk", "Niels Teich", "Stefan Koelsch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126224.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Parameters_of_heart_rate_variability_HRV_/2671900", "title"=>"Parameters of heart rate variability (HRV).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-05-08 14:17:41"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"37", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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