Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals
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{"title"=>"Characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Line", "last_name"=>"Hermannsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56381540800"}, {"first_name"=>"Jakob", "last_name"=>"Tougaard", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602733560"}, {"first_name"=>"Kristian", "last_name"=>"Beedholm", "scopus_author_id"=>"12809427200"}, {"first_name"=>"Jacob", "last_name"=>"Nabe-Nielsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602940432"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter Teglberg", "last_name"=>"Madsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202189904"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941912111", "pui"=>"605996806", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0133436", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84941912111", "pmid"=>"26214849"}, "id"=>"14ebd73c-f20f-352d-8cb6-da035e08df3e", "abstract"=>"Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marinemammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited bymany of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propa- gation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in3, 25 in3 and 40 in3) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders.We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-cal- culated to 192 dB re µPa2s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB Leq-fast (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and por- poises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500meters.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/characteristics-propagation-airgun-pulses-shallow-water-implications-effects-small-marine-mammals", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>24, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>8, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>3, "Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>21, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>46}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>21}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Colombia"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "French Guiana"=>1, "United States"=>2, "South Africa"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2191486"], "description"=>"<p>Unweighted SELs are shown for all recording ranges for broadband pulses from a 40 in<sup>3</sup> airgun volume at high output pressure (crosses), together with the audiogram-weighted SELs for harbor seal (circles) and harbor porpoise (stars).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropogenic noise sources", "1300 meters", "db", "sound exposure level", "habitat", "Reson 4014 hydrophones", "transmission loss model", "Marine mammals", "Small Marine Mammals Airguns", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1495280, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Line Hermannsen", "Jakob Tougaard", "Kristian Beedholm", "Jacob Nabe-Nielsen", "Peter Teglberg Madsen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133436.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Audiogram_weighted_sound_exposure_levels_SELs_/1495280", "title"=>"Audiogram-weighted sound exposure levels (SELs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-27 03:14:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2191470"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are representative recordings of the 40 in<sup>3</sup> airgun with approx. 120 bar output pressure obtained at different ranges from the airgun. A: 6 m, B: 120 m, C: 200 m, D: 400 m, E: 800 m, and F: 1300 m. See legend to Fig 1 for explanation of subplots. Note that the y-axis on the center panel extends above 100 kHz for plot A and B compared to 10 kHz for the remaining plots, because of differences in sampling rates for the six stations. Note also the different y-axis scales in the time plots (top and bottom panels).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropogenic noise sources", "1300 meters", "db", "sound exposure level", "habitat", "Reson 4014 hydrophones", "transmission loss model", "Marine mammals", "Small Marine Mammals Airguns", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1495265, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Line Hermannsen", "Jakob Tougaard", "Kristian Beedholm", "Jacob Nabe-Nielsen", "Peter Teglberg Madsen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133436.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_to_the_airgun_signal_with_increasing_range_/1495265", "title"=>"Changes to the airgun signal with increasing range.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-27 03:14:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2191489"], "description"=>"<div><p>Airguns used in seismic surveys are among the most prevalent and powerful anthropogenic noise sources in marine habitats. They are designed to produce most energy below 100 Hz, but the pulses have also been reported to contain medium-to-high frequency components with the potential to affect small marine mammals, which have their best hearing sensitivity at higher frequencies. In shallow water environments, inhabited by many of such species, the impact of airgun noise may be particularly challenging to assess due to complex propagation conditions. To alleviate the current lack of knowledge on the characteristics and propagation of airgun pulses in shallow water with implications for effects on small marine mammals, we recorded pulses from a single airgun with three operating volumes (10 in<sup>3</sup>, 25 in<sup>3</sup> and 40 in<sup>3</sup>) at six ranges (6, 120, 200, 400, 800 and 1300 m) in a uniform shallow water habitat using two calibrated Reson 4014 hydrophones and four DSG-Ocean acoustic data recorders. We show that airgun pulses in this shallow habitat propagated out to 1300 meters in a way that can be approximated by a 18log(r) geometric transmission loss model, but with a high pass filter effect from the shallow water depth. Source levels were back-calculated to 192 dB re µPa<sup>2</sup>s (sound exposure level) and 200 dB re 1 µPa dB L<sub>eq-fast</sub> (rms over 125 ms duration), and the pulses contained substantial energy up to 10 kHz, even at the furthest recording station at 1300 meters. We conclude that the risk of causing hearing damage when using single airguns in shallow waters is small for both pinnipeds and porpoises. However, there is substantial potential for significant behavioral responses out to several km from the airgun, well beyond the commonly used shut-down zone of 500 meters.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropogenic noise sources", "1300 meters", "db", "sound exposure level", "habitat", "Reson 4014 hydrophones", "transmission loss model", "Marine mammals", "Small Marine Mammals Airguns", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1495283, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Line Hermannsen", "Jakob Tougaard", "Kristian Beedholm", "Jacob Nabe-Nielsen", "Peter Teglberg Madsen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133436", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_and_Propagation_of_Airgun_Pulses_in_Shallow_Water_with_Implications_for_Effects_on_Small_Marine_Mammals_/1495283", "title"=>"Characteristics and Propagation of Airgun Pulses in Shallow Water with Implications for Effects on Small Marine Mammals", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-27 03:14:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2191480"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are representative recordings obtained 120 m from the airgun at different combinations of volume (from top to bottom: 10 in<sup>3</sup>, 25 in<sup>3</sup> and 40 in<sup>3</sup>) and operating pressure (left: low; right: high). Each plot contains four subplots with different representations of the signal. Bottom panel: time signal. Center panel: spectrogram (power spectral density, PSD) with logarithmic frequency axis (common color scale across subplots A-F at extreme right). Right panel: normalized power spectral density plotted on the same vertical frequency axis as the spectrogram. Top panel: cumulated sound energy of the pulse from start to end of recording.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropogenic noise sources", "1300 meters", "db", "sound exposure level", "habitat", "Reson 4014 hydrophones", "transmission loss model", "Marine mammals", "Small Marine Mammals Airguns", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1495274, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Line Hermannsen", "Jakob Tougaard", "Kristian Beedholm", "Jacob Nabe-Nielsen", "Peter Teglberg Madsen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133436.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_airgun_volume_and_operating_pressure_on_source_characteristics_/1495274", "title"=>"Effect of airgun volume and operating pressure on source characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-27 03:14:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2191481"], "description"=>"<p>Exposure levels estimated as L<sub>pp</sub> (panel A), SEL (panel B) and L<sub>eq-fast</sub> (panel C) as a function of distance to the airgun. Linear transmission loss models, кlog(r), estimated by linear regression of values from the six stations (6 m, 120 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1300 m) are given for all six combinations of airgun volume (10 in<sup>3</sup>, 25 in<sup>3</sup> and 40 in<sup>3</sup>) and pressure (high: red, and low: blue). The intercept with the y-axis approximates the back-calculated source levels (at 1 m), as shown next to the linear regression lines.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropogenic noise sources", "1300 meters", "db", "sound exposure level", "habitat", "Reson 4014 hydrophones", "transmission loss model", "Marine mammals", "Small Marine Mammals Airguns", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1495275, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Line Hermannsen", "Jakob Tougaard", "Kristian Beedholm", "Jacob Nabe-Nielsen", "Peter Teglberg Madsen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133436.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transmission_loss_/1495275", "title"=>"Transmission loss.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-27 03:14:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2191484"], "description"=>"<p>A. Total broadband energy in all frequency bands (circles) and summed energy above 1 kHz (triangles) as a function of range shown for all recordings of the 40 in<sup>3</sup> airgun at high pressure. B. Relative values (expressed in dBs) of energy above 1 kHz compared to the total broadband energy shown as means with standard deviations (SD).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthropogenic noise sources", "1300 meters", "db", "sound exposure level", "habitat", "Reson 4014 hydrophones", "transmission loss model", "Marine mammals", "Small Marine Mammals Airguns", "airgun pulses"], "article_id"=>1495277, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Line Hermannsen", "Jakob Tougaard", "Kristian Beedholm", "Jacob Nabe-Nielsen", "Peter Teglberg Madsen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133436.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_pass_filtering_with_transmission_range_/1495277", "title"=>"High-pass filtering with transmission range.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-27 03:14:58"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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