Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones
Publication Date
July 20, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Tim Kalvelage, Gaute Lavik, Marlene M. Jensen, Niels Peter Revsbech, et al
Volume
10
Issue
7
Pages
e0133526
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0133526
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26192623
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4507870
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26192623
Web of Science
000358546400098
Scopus
84941761213
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/aerobic-microbial-respiration-oceanic-oxygen-minimum-zones
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Aerobic microbial respiration in oceanic oxygen minimum zones", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Tim", "last_name"=>"Kalvelage", "scopus_author_id"=>"50661434400"}, {"first_name"=>"Gaute", "last_name"=>"Lavik", "scopus_author_id"=>"15846309000"}, {"first_name"=>"Marlene M.", "last_name"=>"Jensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401787243"}, {"first_name"=>"Niels Peter", "last_name"=>"Revsbech", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004319104"}, {"first_name"=>"Carolin", "last_name"=>"Löscher", "scopus_author_id"=>"56881767000"}, {"first_name"=>"Harald", "last_name"=>"Schunck", "scopus_author_id"=>"55328669100"}, {"first_name"=>"Dhwani K.", "last_name"=>"Desai", "scopus_author_id"=>"16232780500"}, {"first_name"=>"Helena", "last_name"=>"Hauss", "scopus_author_id"=>"35114971600"}, {"first_name"=>"Rainer", "last_name"=>"Kiko", "scopus_author_id"=>"24391213400"}, {"first_name"=>"Moritz", "last_name"=>"Holtappels", "scopus_author_id"=>"14019458700"}, {"first_name"=>"Julie", "last_name"=>"Laroche", "scopus_author_id"=>"7007063232"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruth A.", "last_name"=>"Schmitz", "scopus_author_id"=>"56906638500"}, {"first_name"=>"Michelle I.", "last_name"=>"Graco", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507091539"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcel M.M.", "last_name"=>"Kuypers", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701737838"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"606006417", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0133526", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"26192623", "issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941761213", "sgr"=>"84941761213"}, "id"=>"4c2aae7a-7305-3b11-94f1-02f4b0fca0e1", "abstract"=>"Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/aerobic-microbial-respiration-oceanic-oxygen-minimum-zones", "reader_count"=>79, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>6, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>20, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>6, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>24}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>24}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>22}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>2}, "group_count"=>2}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182872"], "description"=>"<p><sup>1</sup> From references [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>].</p><p><sup>2</sup> Heterotrophic oxic respiration = Total oxic respiration– 1.5 * NH<sub>3</sub> oxidation– 0.5 * NO<sub>2</sub><sup>-</sup> oxidation.</p><p><sup>3</sup> Heterotrophic oxic respiration: O<sub>2</sub>/NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> = 106/16; NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> reduction: NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> = 212/16; DNRA: NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>/NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> = 53/69.</p><p><sup>4</sup> Station sampled for metagenomic analysis (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.g002\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 2</a>).</p><p>For the sake of clarity, standard errors for the individual processes determined at each station are not listed here (typically ~10% of the measured rate). Directly measured rates are in italics, the remainder were inferred from idealized stoichiometries (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a> for further details). Liberation of NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> from organic matter via oxic as well as NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> respiration accounts for bacterial N-uptake assuming a growth efficiency of 0.15 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref066\" target=\"_blank\">66</a>] and a C/N ratio of 6.6 for the heterotrophic community [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref067\" target=\"_blank\">67</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref068\" target=\"_blank\">68</a>].</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones Oxygen", "Aerobic Microbial Respiration", "microaerobic respiration", "anammox", "matter remineralization", "pelagic nitrogen removal", "omz", "ammonium"], "article_id"=>1488908, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tim Kalvelage", "Gaute Lavik", "Marlene M. Jensen", "Niels Peter Revsbech", "Carolin Löscher", "Harald Schunck", "Dhwani K. Desai", "Helena Hauss", "Rainer Kiko", "Moritz Holtappels", "Julie LaRoche", "Ruth A. Schmitz", "Michelle I. Graco", "Marcel M. M. Kuypers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ammonium_budget_for_the_upper_Namibian_and_Peruvian_OMZ_considering_aerobic_and_anaerobic_NH_4_producing_and_consuming_processes_/1488908", "title"=>"Ammonium budget for the upper Namibian and Peruvian OMZ considering aerobic and anaerobic NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-producing and consuming processes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-20 02:56:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182869"], "description"=>"<p>(a) O<sub>2</sub> sensitivity assays in the Namibian (station 225) and Peruvian OMZ (stations 13 and 28) during cruises M76 and M77-3, respectively. Oxygen consumption rates are given as percentages of the highest rate observed (= 100%) among all O<sub>2</sub> treatments (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Table</a> for absolute rates). Error bars for O<sub>2</sub> consumption rates are standard errors calculated from linear regression. Isolines (grey) indicate diffusion-limited respiration rates inside aggregates of 0.01–25 mm in diameter. A detailed description of how aggregate-size-dependent rates were calculated is included in the <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.s001\" target=\"_blank\">S1 File</a>. (b) Vertical distribution of particle volumes (20 m bins) for six size classes between 0.06 and 5.32 mm (ESD) in the central Peruvian OMZ (12.62°S/77.55°W) during cruise M93. Color shading indicates diffusion limitation of aerobic respiration inside particles. For clarity, particles >5.32 mm are not depicted here. A more general overview of particle size distributions in the ETSP OMZ is given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.s003\" target=\"_blank\">S2 Fig</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones Oxygen", "Aerobic Microbial Respiration", "microaerobic respiration", "anammox", "matter remineralization", "pelagic nitrogen removal", "omz", "ammonium"], "article_id"=>1488905, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tim Kalvelage", "Gaute Lavik", "Marlene M. Jensen", "Niels Peter Revsbech", "Carolin Löscher", "Harald Schunck", "Dhwani K. Desai", "Helena Hauss", "Rainer Kiko", "Moritz Holtappels", "Julie LaRoche", "Ruth A. Schmitz", "Michelle I. Graco", "Marcel M. M. Kuypers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Oxygen_sensitivity_of_aerobic_respiration_and_OMZ_particle_size_distributions_/1488905", "title"=>"Oxygen sensitivity of aerobic respiration and OMZ particle size distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-20 02:56:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182868"], "description"=>"<p>(a, b) Abundance of low-affinity (cytochrome c oxidase) and high-affinity (cytochrome bd and cbb<sub>3</sub> oxidase) aerobic oxidases in the Peruvian OMZ (station 3). (c-f) Abundance and expression of cytochrome oxidase genes in the OMZ off Chile during cruise MOOMZ-1 [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref034\" target=\"_blank\">34</a>]. Taxonomic affiliations of cytochrome oxidases are shown on domain, phylum or class level if represented by at least 5% of oxidase-coding sequences. Exact abundance and expression levels as well as taxonomic assignments of the individual types of cytochrome oxidases are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Table</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones Oxygen", "Aerobic Microbial Respiration", "microaerobic respiration", "anammox", "matter remineralization", "pelagic nitrogen removal", "omz", "ammonium"], "article_id"=>1488904, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tim Kalvelage", "Gaute Lavik", "Marlene M. Jensen", "Niels Peter Revsbech", "Carolin Löscher", "Harald Schunck", "Dhwani K. Desai", "Helena Hauss", "Rainer Kiko", "Moritz Holtappels", "Julie LaRoche", "Ruth A. Schmitz", "Michelle I. Graco", "Marcel M. M. Kuypers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Abundance_of_genes_and_transcripts_encoding_for_terminal_respiratory_oxidases_in_the_ETSP_OMZ_/1488904", "title"=>"Abundance of genes and transcripts encoding for terminal respiratory oxidases in the ETSP OMZ.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-20 02:56:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182866"], "description"=>"<p>(a-c) Namibian shelf (station 252, 111m). (d-f) Peruvian coastal OMZ (station 807, 115 m). (g-i) Offshore Peruvian OMZ (station 3, 4697 m). Dashed lines indicate the upper OMZ boundary (O<sub>2</sub> ≤15 μmol l<sup>-1</sup>). Previously determined rates of aerobic and anaerobic NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup> oxidation [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref014\" target=\"_blank\">14</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref024\" target=\"_blank\">24</a>,<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526#pone.0133526.ref025\" target=\"_blank\">25</a>] are tenfold magnified. Please note the differences in scale between stations. *Chlorophyll <i>a</i> concentrations in panel b in relative units.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones Oxygen", "Aerobic Microbial Respiration", "microaerobic respiration", "anammox", "matter remineralization", "pelagic nitrogen removal", "omz", "ammonium"], "article_id"=>1488902, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tim Kalvelage", "Gaute Lavik", "Marlene M. Jensen", "Niels Peter Revsbech", "Carolin Löscher", "Harald Schunck", "Dhwani K. Desai", "Helena Hauss", "Rainer Kiko", "Moritz Holtappels", "Julie LaRoche", "Ruth A. Schmitz", "Michelle I. Graco", "Marcel M. M. Kuypers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Physicochemical_zonation_and_rates_of_microbial_respiration_in_the_OMZs_off_Namibia_and_Peru_/1488902", "title"=>"Physicochemical zonation and rates of microbial respiration in the OMZs off Namibia and Peru.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-20 02:56:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182875", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182876", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182877", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182878", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182879", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182880"], "description"=>"<div><p>Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically and laterally advected, oxygenated waters in this zone by aerobic microorganisms. In accordance, metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses identified genes encoding for aerobic terminal oxidases and demonstrated their expression by diverse microbial communities, even in virtually anoxic waters. Our results suggest that microaerobic respiration is a major mode of organic matter remineralization and source of ammonium (~45-100%) in the upper oxygen minimum zones, and reconcile hitherto observed mismatches between ammonium producing and consuming processes therein.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones Oxygen", "Aerobic Microbial Respiration", "microaerobic respiration", "anammox", "matter remineralization", "pelagic nitrogen removal", "omz", "ammonium"], "article_id"=>1488911, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tim Kalvelage", "Gaute Lavik", "Marlene M. Jensen", "Niels Peter Revsbech", "Carolin Löscher", "Harald Schunck", "Dhwani K. Desai", "Helena Hauss", "Rainer Kiko", "Moritz Holtappels", "Julie LaRoche", "Ruth A. Schmitz", "Michelle I. Graco", "Marcel M. M. Kuypers"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aerobic_Microbial_Respiration_In_Oceanic_Oxygen_Minimum_Zones_/1488911", "title"=>"Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-07-20 02:56:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2182871"], "description"=>"<p>Overview of sampling locations and times for the various types of data considered in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones Oxygen", "Aerobic Microbial Respiration", "microaerobic respiration", "anammox", "matter remineralization", "pelagic nitrogen removal", "omz", "ammonium"], "article_id"=>1488907, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Tim Kalvelage", "Gaute Lavik", "Marlene M. Jensen", "Niels Peter Revsbech", "Carolin Löscher", "Harald Schunck", "Dhwani K. Desai", "Helena Hauss", "Rainer Kiko", "Moritz Holtappels", "Julie LaRoche", "Ruth A. Schmitz", "Michelle I. Graco", "Marcel M. M. Kuypers"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133526.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overview_of_sampling_locations_and_times_for_the_various_types_of_data_considered_in_this_study_/1488907", "title"=>"Overview of sampling locations and times for the various types of data considered in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-20 02:56:34"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"46", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"18", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"38", "full-text"=>"53", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"49", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"76", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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