School-Age Children Are a Reservoir of Malaria Infection in Malawi
Publication Date
July 24, 2015
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jenny A. Walldorf, Lauren M. Cohee, Jenna E. Coalson, Andy Bauleni, et al
Volume
10
Issue
7
Pages
e0134061
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134061
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0134061
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207758
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4514805
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26207758
Web of Science
000358622000200
Scopus
84941730019
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/schoolage-children-reservoir-malaria-infection-malawi
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"School-age children are a reservoir of malaria infection in Malawi", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jenny A.", "last_name"=>"Walldorf", "scopus_author_id"=>"40662107900"}, {"first_name"=>"Lauren M.", "last_name"=>"Cohee", "scopus_author_id"=>"26530666400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jenna E.", "last_name"=>"Coalson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56845014600"}, {"first_name"=>"Andy", "last_name"=>"Bauleni", "scopus_author_id"=>"56610374000"}, {"first_name"=>"Kondwani", "last_name"=>"Nkanaunena", "scopus_author_id"=>"24463996200"}, {"first_name"=>"Atupele", "last_name"=>"Kapito-Tembo", "scopus_author_id"=>"26536064300"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl B.", "last_name"=>"Seydel", "scopus_author_id"=>"36800850500"}, {"first_name"=>"Doreen", "last_name"=>"Ali", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005976715"}, {"first_name"=>"Don", "last_name"=>"Mathanga", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507691129"}, {"first_name"=>"Terrie E.", "last_name"=>"Taylor", "scopus_author_id"=>"35413137400"}, {"first_name"=>"Clarissa", "last_name"=>"Valim", "scopus_author_id"=>"8872362100"}, {"first_name"=>"Miriam K.", "last_name"=>"Laufer", "scopus_author_id"=>"8791682900"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"26207758", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0134061", "sgr"=>"84941730019", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84941730019", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"605997038"}, "id"=>"8a95481e-1327-3e3c-a39e-ba431cbf8f36", "abstract"=>"Abstract Malaria surveillance and interventions in endemic countries often target young children at highest risk of malariamorbidity and mortality.We aimed to determine whether school-age children and adults not captured in surveillance serve as a reservoir for malaria infection and may contribute to malaria transmission. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in one rainy and one dry season in southern Malawi. Demographic and health information was collected for all household members. Blood samples were obtained for microscopic and PCR identification of Plasmodium falciparum. Among 5796 individuals aged greater than six months, PCR prevalence ofmalaria infection was 5%, 10%, and 20% in dry, and 9%, 15%, and 32% in rainy seasons in Blantyre, Thyolo, and Chikhwawa, respectively. Over 88% of those infected were asymptomatic. Participants aged 6–15 years were at higher risk of infection (OR=4.8; 95%CI, 4.0–5.8) and asymptomatic infection (OR=4.2; 95%CI, 2.7– 6.6) than younger children in all settings. School-age children used bednets less frequently than other age groups. Compared to young children, school-age children were brought less often for treatment and more often to unreliable treatment sources. Conclusion: School-age children represent an underappreciated reservoir of malaria infection and have less expo- sure to antimalarial interventions. Malaria control and elimination strategies may need to expand to include this age group.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/schoolage-children-reservoir-malaria-infection-malawi", "reader_count"=>50, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Unspecified"=>3, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Nigeria"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2189353"], "description"=>"<p>Prevalence was heterogeneous across districts and seasons (A) and across sites within district (B). Pearson chi-square P values were <0.001 for comparisons of prevalence of parasitemia across districts in both seasons and were <0.005 for comparisons of prevalence between seasons. Likelihood ratio P values for homogeneity of prevalence within districts were < 0.001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria infection", "Malawi Malaria surveillance", "pcr", "ci"], "article_id"=>1493901, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jenny A. Walldorf", "Lauren M. Cohee", "Jenna E. Coalson", "Andy Bauleni", "Kondwani Nkanaunena", "Atupele Kapito-Tembo", "Karl B. Seydel", "Doreen Ali", "Don Mathanga", "Terrie E. Taylor", "Clarissa Valim", "Miriam K. Laufer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134061.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Malaria_infection_prevalence_diagnosed_PCR_by_season_and_district_/1493901", "title"=>"Malaria infection prevalence diagnosed PCR by season and district.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-24 03:52:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2189357"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations: OR = Odds ratio; CI = Confidence interval; EA = enumeration area; IRS = insecticide residual spraying.</p><p>Mixed multivariate model represents the final model including district, season and additional variables with p-value <0.05 or that caused substantial change in the coefficients of other variables in the model. Wald type III P values and confidence limits are shown for each variable included in the model.</p><p><sup>a</sup>Finished house materials defined as at least 2 of 3 house components (walls, floor, roof) man-made versus natural or rudimentary</p><p><sup>b</sup>Each EA was assigned a community net use category based on the prevalence of net use by individuals within the EA as defined by quartiles.</p><p>Risk factors for malaria infection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria infection", "Malawi Malaria surveillance", "pcr", "ci"], "article_id"=>1493905, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jenny A. Walldorf", "Lauren M. Cohee", "Jenna E. Coalson", "Andy Bauleni", "Kondwani Nkanaunena", "Atupele Kapito-Tembo", "Karl B. Seydel", "Doreen Ali", "Don Mathanga", "Terrie E. Taylor", "Clarissa Valim", "Miriam K. Laufer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134061.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Risk_factors_for_malaria_infection_/1493905", "title"=>"Risk factors for malaria infection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-24 03:52:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2189355"], "description"=>"<p>Association of submicroscopic parasitemia with age and season was unchanged after adjustment for district, gender, net use, net ownership, and house materials.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria infection", "Malawi Malaria surveillance", "pcr", "ci"], "article_id"=>1493903, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jenny A. Walldorf", "Lauren M. Cohee", "Jenna E. Coalson", "Andy Bauleni", "Kondwani Nkanaunena", "Atupele Kapito-Tembo", "Karl B. Seydel", "Doreen Ali", "Don Mathanga", "Terrie E. Taylor", "Clarissa Valim", "Miriam K. Laufer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134061.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_with_submicroscopic_infection_among_all_malaria_infections_by_age_group_/1493903", "title"=>"Proportion with submicroscopic infection among all malaria infections by age group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-24 03:52:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2189356"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviation: SD = Standard Deviation</p><p>P values for chi-square tests comparisons across districts for household categorical variables were all <0.001. P values for comparisons of individual categorical variables were all <0.01 with the exception of pregnant during survey (P = 0.09). ANOVA was used for comparison across districts for the continuous variable household size where P<0.001. Dry season 2012 and rainy season 2013 are combined. Data analyzed for each season separately did not reveal relevant differences for the demographic and socioeconomic variables included in this table.</p><p><sup>a</sup>Finished house materials defined as at least 2 of 3 house components (walls, floor, roof) finished versus natural or rudimentary</p><p><sup>b</sup>By individual report among women ≥12 years of age</p><p>Household and individual characteristics by district.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria infection", "Malawi Malaria surveillance", "pcr", "ci"], "article_id"=>1493904, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jenny A. Walldorf", "Lauren M. Cohee", "Jenna E. Coalson", "Andy Bauleni", "Kondwani Nkanaunena", "Atupele Kapito-Tembo", "Karl B. Seydel", "Doreen Ali", "Don Mathanga", "Terrie E. Taylor", "Clarissa Valim", "Miriam K. Laufer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134061.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Household_and_individual_characteristics_by_district_/1493904", "title"=>"Household and individual characteristics by district.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-24 03:52:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2189354"], "description"=>"<p>Asymptomatic malaria was defined as PCR positive, with temperature <37.5°C and without reported fever within 48 hours. Prevalence differences were comparable (and Pearson chi-square P values >0.05) across districts in dry and rainy seasons and between seasons. In 2B, the odds of asymptomatic infection by age group were adjusted for season and sex and were statistically significant in Chikhwawa and Thyolo but not in Blantyre (P<sub>interaction age and district</sub> = 0.001).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria infection", "Malawi Malaria surveillance", "pcr", "ci"], "article_id"=>1493902, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jenny A. Walldorf", "Lauren M. Cohee", "Jenna E. Coalson", "Andy Bauleni", "Kondwani Nkanaunena", "Atupele Kapito-Tembo", "Karl B. Seydel", "Doreen Ali", "Don Mathanga", "Terrie E. Taylor", "Clarissa Valim", "Miriam K. Laufer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134061.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Asymptomatic_infections_among_malaria_infected_individuals_by_season_and_district_A_and_by_age_group_B_/1493902", "title"=>"Asymptomatic infections among malaria-infected individuals by season and district (A) and by age group (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-07-24 03:52:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2189358"], "description"=>"<p><sup>a</sup>Mixed multivariate model represents the final model including district, season and additional variables with p-value <0.05 or that caused substantial change in the coefficients of other variables in the model. Wald type III P values and confidence limits are shown for each variable included in the model.</p><p><sup>b</sup>Finished house materials defined as at least 2 of 3 house components (walls, floor, roof) man-made versus natural or rudimentary</p><p>Predictors for seeking treatment outside of the formal health sector (e.g. a local shop) versus at a government health center.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["malaria infection", "Malawi Malaria surveillance", "pcr", "ci"], "article_id"=>1493906, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jenny A. Walldorf", "Lauren M. Cohee", "Jenna E. Coalson", "Andy Bauleni", "Kondwani Nkanaunena", "Atupele Kapito-Tembo", "Karl B. Seydel", "Doreen Ali", "Don Mathanga", "Terrie E. Taylor", "Clarissa Valim", "Miriam K. Laufer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134061.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Predictors_for_seeking_treatment_outside_of_the_formal_health_sector_e_g_a_local_shop_versus_at_a_government_health_center_/1493906", "title"=>"Predictors for seeking treatment outside of the formal health sector (e.g. a local shop) versus at a government health center.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-07-24 03:52:38"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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