Language and Memory Improvements following tDCS of Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex
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{"title"=>"Language and memory improvements following tDCS of left lateral prefrontal cortex", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Erika K.", "last_name"=>"Hussey", "scopus_author_id"=>"24721219400"}, {"first_name"=>"Nathan", "last_name"=>"Ward", "scopus_author_id"=>"57014450200"}, {"first_name"=>"Kiel", "last_name"=>"Christianson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003668535"}, {"first_name"=>"Arthur F.", "last_name"=>"Kramer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7401931929"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84951007471", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0141417", "sgr"=>"84951007471", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"26528814", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"607307662"}, "id"=>"998c0577-99ef-3fe6-93f0-af2fc715b847", "abstract"=>"Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect interpretations when faced with temporary ambiguity. Using transcranial direct current stimulation, we tested whether stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex had discriminate effects on language and memory conditions that rely on executive-control (versus cases with minimal executive-control demands, even in the face of task difficulty). Participants were randomly assigned to receive Anodal, Cathodal, or Sham stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex while they (1) processed ambiguous and unambiguous sentences in a word-by-word self-paced reading task and (2) performed an n-back memory task that, on some trials, contained interference lure items reputed to require executive-control. Across both tasks, we parametrically manipulated executive-control demands and task difficulty. Our results revealed that the Anodal group outperformed the remaining groups on (1) the sentence processing conditions requiring executive-control, and (2) only the most complex n-back conditions, regardless of executive-control demands. Together, these findings add to the mounting evidence for the selective causal role of left lateral prefrontal cortex for executive-control tasks in the language domain. Moreover, we provide the first evidence suggesting that brain stimulation is a promising method to mitigate processing demands encountered during online sentence processing.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/language-memory-improvements-following-tdcs-left-lateral-prefrontal-cortex", "reader_count"=>53, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Psychology"=>22, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>22}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401045"], "description"=>"<p>Average uncorrected reading times on the garden-path sentence conditions in the region of interest (Note: the content of this region varied for sentence type, such that it was “sparkled brightly” in ambiguous sentences and “hid” in unambiguous sentences). Reading times are plotted for correct items only for each stimulation group and task condition. Error bars = ±1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592832, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Garden_path_reading_times_/1592832", "title"=>"Garden-path reading times.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401043"], "description"=>"<p>Electrode placement locations (anode in red and cathode in blue) and the output of finite element modeling of the estimated electric field for the Anodal stimulation condition. Arrows denote the direction of the current from anode to cathode.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592830, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modeled_stimulation_electric_field_/1592830", "title"=>"Modeled stimulation electric field.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401058", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401059"], "description"=>"<div><p>Recent research demonstrates that performance on executive-control measures can be enhanced through brain stimulation of lateral prefrontal regions. Separate psycholinguistic work emphasizes the importance of left lateral prefrontal cortex executive-control resources during sentence processing, especially when readers must override early, incorrect interpretations when faced with temporary ambiguity. Using transcranial direct current stimulation, we tested whether stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex had discriminate effects on language and memory conditions that rely on executive-control (versus cases with minimal executive-control demands, even in the face of task difficulty). Participants were randomly assigned to receive Anodal, Cathodal, or Sham stimulation of left lateral prefrontal cortex while they (1) processed ambiguous and unambiguous sentences in a word-by-word self-paced reading task and (2) performed an <i>n</i>-back memory task that, on some trials, contained interference lure items reputed to require executive-control. Across both tasks, we parametrically manipulated executive-control demands and task difficulty. Our results revealed that the Anodal group outperformed the remaining groups on (1) the sentence processing conditions requiring executive-control, and (2) only the most complex <i>n-</i>back conditions, regardless of executive-control demands. Together, these findings add to the mounting evidence for the selective causal role of left lateral prefrontal cortex for executive-control tasks in the language domain. Moreover, we provide the first evidence suggesting that brain stimulation is a promising method to mitigate processing demands encountered during online sentence processing.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592844, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Language_and_Memory_Improvements_following_tDCS_of_Left_Lateral_Prefrontal_Cortex_/1592844", "title"=>"Language and Memory Improvements following tDCS of Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401054"], "description"=>"<p>Difficulty Level refers to the <i>n</i>-level contrast of 2-back and 4-back, and Conflict Level refers to the contrast of blocks with versus without lures. Bold indicates coefficients that are significant. SE = standard error</p><p>*significant at the p<0.05 level</p><p><sup>†</sup>marginal at the p<0.06 level</p><p>Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for <i>n</i>-back discriminability (A′).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592841, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimate_coefficients_from_linear_mixed_effects_models_for_n_back_discriminability_A_/1592841", "title"=>"Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for <i>n</i>-back discriminability (A′).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401052"], "description"=>"<p>The critical region (Region 4) is “sparkled brightly” in ambiguous sentences and “hid” in unambiguous sentences. Difficulty Level refers to the length of the sentence (long vs. short) and Conflict Level refers to sentence ambiguity (ambiguous vs. unambiguous). Bold indicates coefficients that are significant. SE = standard error</p><p>*significant at the p<0.05 level</p><p>Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for reading times in the critical area of garden-path sentences.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592839, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimate_coefficients_from_linear_mixed_effects_models_for_reading_times_in_the_critical_area_of_garden_path_sentences_/1592839", "title"=>"Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for reading times in the critical area of garden-path sentences.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401053"], "description"=>"<p>Region 2 is the critical sentence region. For relative clauses, Difficulty Level refers to the length of the embedded clause region (long vs. short) and Sentence Type refers to extraction (object-extracted vs. subject-extracted). Bold indicates coefficients that are significant. SE = standard error</p><p>*significant at the p<0.05 level</p><p>Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for length-corrected reading times in the critical region of relative clauses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592840, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimate_coefficients_from_linear_mixed_effects_models_for_length_corrected_reading_times_in_the_critical_region_of_relative_clauses_/1592840", "title"=>"Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for length-corrected reading times in the critical region of relative clauses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401051"], "description"=>"<p>Difficulty Level refers to the length of the ambiguous region (long vs. short) and Conflict Level refers to sentence ambiguity (ambiguous vs. unambiguous). Bold indicates coefficients that are significant. SE = standard error</p><p>*significant at the p<0.05 level</p><p>Estimate coefficients from generalized linear mixed-effects models for garden-path accuracy on the reading task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592838, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimate_coefficients_from_generalized_linear_mixed_effects_models_for_garden_path_accuracy_on_the_reading_task_/1592838", "title"=>"Estimate coefficients from generalized linear mixed-effects models for garden-path accuracy on the reading task.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401048"], "description"=>"<p>Average <i>n</i>-back response criterion (Grier’s B′′) for each stimulation group and task condition. Grier’s B′′ is a non-parametric signal detection index of participants’ bias to respond ‘target or ‘non-target.’ A higher Grier’s B′′ value corresponds to a conservative bias to say ‘non-target,’ while a lower Grier’s B′′ indexes a higher likelihood of judging an item to be a ‘target.’ Error bars = ±1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592835, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_N_back_response_thresholds_/1592835", "title"=>"<i>N</i>-back response thresholds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401047"], "description"=>"<p>Average <i>n</i>-back discriminability (A′) for each stimulation group and task condition. A′ is a non-parametric signal detection index of how well participants can discriminate targets from non-targets; thus a higher A′ value corresponds to better discriminability. Error bars = ±1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592834, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_N_back_discriminability_/1592834", "title"=>"<i>N</i>-back discriminability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401042"], "description"=>"<p>Timeline of task administration and design details of each task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592829, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_design_/1592829", "title"=>"Experimental design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401055"], "description"=>"<p>Difficulty Level refers to the <i>n</i>-level contrast of 2-back and 4-back, and Conflict Level refers to the lure presence contrast of blocks with versus without lures. Bold indicates coefficients that are significant. SE = standard error</p><p>*significant at the p<0.05 level</p><p>Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for <i>n</i>-back response criterion (Grier’s B′′).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592842, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimate_coefficients_from_linear_mixed_effects_models_for_n_back_response_criterion_Grier_s_B__/1592842", "title"=>"Estimate coefficients from linear mixed-effects models for <i>n</i>-back response criterion (Grier’s B′′).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401050"], "description"=>"<p>Example Garden-Path (1–2) and Relative Clause (3–4) sentences. Slashes indicate sentence region boundaries used for reading time analyses, where bold denote the regions of interest. OE = object-extracted; SE = subject-extracted</p><p>Example stimulus sentences for each condition.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592837, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_stimulus_sentences_for_each_condition_/1592837", "title"=>"Example stimulus sentences for each condition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401049"], "description"=>"<p>Interactions of Conflict Level and Difficulty Level with Stimulation in the <i>N</i>-Back and Reading Tasks. Note that the relative clause items have a no Conflict Level effects to evaluate. Colors indicate cases when the Stimulation contrasts significantly predicted performance. Gray shading = no effects for any contrast; Red shading = Anodal > Sham; Blue shading = Anodal > Cathodal; Purple shading = Anodal outperforms remaining groups; Green shading = Anodal and Sham outperform Cathodal.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592836, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_results_/1592836", "title"=>"Summary of results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401046"], "description"=>"<p>Average uncorrected reading times on the relative clause sentence conditions in the region of interest (Note: the content of this region varied for sentence type, such that it was “who the expert questioned” in object-extract sentences and “who questioned the expert” in subject-extracted sentences). Reading times are plotted for correct items only for each stimulation group and task condition. Error bars = ±1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592833, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relative_clause_reading_times_/1592833", "title"=>"Relative clause reading times.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2401044"], "description"=>"<p>Average comprehension accuracy to questions following garden-path sentences for each stimulation group and task condition. Error bars = ±1 standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Left Lateral Prefrontal Cortex", "Prefrontal cortex", "sentence processing conditions", "Sentence processing", "Separate psycholinguistic work", "task difficulty", "demand", "brain stimulation"], "article_id"=>1592831, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Erika K. Hussey", "Nathan Ward", "Kiel Christianson", "Arthur F. Kramer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141417.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Garden_path_comprehension_accuracy_/1592831", "title"=>"Garden-path comprehension accuracy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-03 06:11:34"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"79", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"2"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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