Effects of Drought, Pest Pressure and Light Availability on Seedling Establishment and Growth: Their Role for Distribution of Tree Species across a Tropical Rainfall Gradient
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Effects of Drought, Pest Pressure and Light Availability on Seedling Establishment and Growth: Their Role for Distribution of Tree Species across a Tropical Rainfall Gradient", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Julian", "last_name"=>"Gaviria"}, {"first_name"=>"Bettina M. J.", "last_name"=>"Engelbrecht"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLOS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"608067395", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0143955"}, "id"=>"0fbbac5c-f3d3-31fd-9370-9f3bf0b35bad", "abstract"=>"Tree species distributions associated with rainfall are among the most prominent patterns in tropical forests. Understanding the mechanisms shaping these patterns is important to project impacts of global climate change on tree distributions and diversity in the tropics. Beside direct effects of water availability, additional factors co-varying with rainfall have been hypothesized to play an important role, including pest pressure and light availability. While low water availability is expected to exclude drought-intolerant wet forest species from drier forests (physiological tolerance hypothesis), high pest pressure or low light availability are hypothesized to exclude dry forest species from wetter forests (pest pressure gradient and light availability hypothesis, respectively). To test these hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition, the potentially most critical stage for species discrimination, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment combined with a pest exclosure treatment at a wet and a dry forest site in Panama with seeds of 26 species with contrasting origin. Establishment success after one year did not reflect species distribution patterns. However, in the wet forest, wet origin species had a home advantage over dry forest species through higher growth rates. At the same time, drought limited survival of wet origin species in the dry forest, supporting the physiological tolerance hypothesis. Together these processes sort species over longer time frames, and exclude species outside their respective home range. Although we found pronounced effects of pests and some effects of light availability on the seedlings, they did not corroborate the pest pressure nor light availability hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition. Our results underline that changes in water availability due to climate change will have direct consequences on tree regeneration and distributions along tropical rainfall gradients, while indirect effects of light and pests are less important.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-drought-pest-pressure-light-availability-seedling-establishment-growth-role-distribution-tre", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>7, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594611"], "description"=>"<p>For overall probability of establishment success (A) and growth (B), we hypothesized that species perform better in their respective home range outcompeting foreign species, with drought limiting wet origin species in the dry site, and pest damage limiting dry origin species in the wet site. Consequently, we expected that the pest exclosure enhances performance only for (poorly defended) dry origin species in the wet site (with high pest pressure) (i.e. three-way interaction between treatment (exclosure/control), origin (dry/wet) and site (dry/wet)). For germination (C) and survival in the wet season (D), when water availability and pest pressure are assumed to be high, we expected that wet origin species have higher survival than dry origin species in the wet site, under control conditions (site x origin interaction). We expected that (poorly defended) dry origin species are limited by pest pressure in the wet site, indicated by higher performance when pest pressure is alleviated through pest exclosure (three-way site x origin x treatment interaction). In contrast, (well defended) wet origin species exhibit no differences in germination/survival between sites, independent of the pest exclosure. We expected dry season survival (E) of (drought sensitive) wet origin species to be lower than survival of dry origin species in dry sites (significant site x origin interaction). Because pest pressure is assumed to be lower in the dry season, we expected no increase in survival with pesticide treatment for any combination of site and origin (no three-way interaction). With increasing light availability (F) we expected a stronger increase in all performance parameters for dry origin species (light x origin interaction), reflecting their higher light requirements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["light availability hypothesis", "climate change", "origin species", "Tropical Rainfall Gradient Tree species distributions", "forest species", "water availability", "pest pressure gradient", "light availability hypotheses", "light availability", "pest exclosure treatment", "processes sort species", "pest pressure", "species distribution patterns"], "article_id"=>1614369, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Julian Gaviria", "Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_the_specific_hypotheses_for_the_effects_of_drought_light_and_pests_on_seedling_performance_/1614369", "title"=>"Schematic representation of the specific hypotheses for the effects of drought, light and pests on seedling performance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-30 03:23:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594612"], "description"=>"<p>Colors indicate the end of the dry season 2012 (red), wet season 2012 (blue) and dry season 2013 (dark red). Included are results of an ANOVA for effects of site, season and site x season interactions. Different letters represent significant differences at the 0.05 level in a Tukey post-hoc test. Presented are means (thick horizontal lines), 95% CI (thin lines), and raw data (points).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["light availability hypothesis", "climate change", "origin species", "Tropical Rainfall Gradient Tree species distributions", "forest species", "water availability", "pest pressure gradient", "light availability hypotheses", "light availability", "pest exclosure treatment", "processes sort species", "pest pressure", "species distribution patterns"], "article_id"=>1614370, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Julian Gaviria", "Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gravimetric_soil_moisture_A_and_canopy_openness_B_in_the_dry_and_wet_site_across_seasons_/1614370", "title"=>"Gravimetric soil moisture (A) and canopy openness (B) in the dry and wet site across seasons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-30 03:23:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594613"], "description"=>"<p>Panels A and B show means and standard errors from the least squares means table [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.ref046\" target=\"_blank\">46</a>]. For canopy openness (B and D), results of exclosure and control seeds and seedlings were pooled, since we did not expect light availability to influence the effect of the exclosure treatment. For overall analyses see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>, for planned contrasts (post-hoc-tests) see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["light availability hypothesis", "climate change", "origin species", "Tropical Rainfall Gradient Tree species distributions", "forest species", "water availability", "pest pressure gradient", "light availability hypotheses", "light availability", "pest exclosure treatment", "processes sort species", "pest pressure", "species distribution patterns"], "article_id"=>1614371, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Julian Gaviria", "Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overall_probability_of_establishment_success_A_and_B_and_growth_C_and_D_at_the_end_of_the_experiment_after_one_year_as_affected_by_moisture_dry_vs_wet_site_origin_dry_vs_wet_pest_exposure_control_vs_exclosure_and_light_availability_canopy_openness_/1614371", "title"=>"Overall probability of establishment success (A and B) and growth (C and D) at the end of the experiment after one year, as affected by moisture (dry vs. wet site), origin (dry vs. wet), pest exposure (control vs. exclosure) and light availability (canopy openness).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-30 03:23:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594614"], "description"=>"<p>Panels A, C and E show means and standard errors from the least squares means table [<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.ref046\" target=\"_blank\">46</a>]. For canopy openness, results of exclosure and control seeds and seedlings were pooled (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.g003\" target=\"_blank\">Fig 3</a>). For overall analyses see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>, for planned contrasts (post-hoc-tests) see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["light availability hypothesis", "climate change", "origin species", "Tropical Rainfall Gradient Tree species distributions", "forest species", "water availability", "pest pressure gradient", "light availability hypotheses", "light availability", "pest exclosure treatment", "processes sort species", "pest pressure", "species distribution patterns"], "article_id"=>1614372, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Julian Gaviria", "Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_seed_germination_A_and_B_wet_season_seedling_survival_C_and_D_and_dry_season_survival_E_and_F_for_species_with_dry_or_wet_origin_as_affected_by_moisture_dry_vs_wet_site_herbivore_exposure_control_vs_exclosure_and_light_availability_canopy_/1614372", "title"=>"Probability of seed germination (A and B), wet season seedling survival (C and D) and dry season survival (E and F) for species with dry or wet origin as affected by moisture (dry vs. wet site), herbivore exposure (control vs. exclosure) and light availability (canopy openness).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-11-30 03:23:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594615"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of the results of the Generalized Linear Mixed Effects Models (GLMM) and Linear Mixed Effects Model (LMM, for growth) for the six performance parameters. Significant relations are in bold. Detailed results are given in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955#pone.0143955.s005\" target=\"_blank\">S3 Table</a>.</p><p>(+) / (-): positive or negative effect of pest exclosure, wet site, wet origin or high light on performance parameters. These are only given for single-term results, not for the interactions.</p><p>Effects of site, species origin, pest exclosure and light on performance parameters of tropical tree seedlings.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["light availability hypothesis", "climate change", "origin species", "Tropical Rainfall Gradient Tree species distributions", "forest species", "water availability", "pest pressure gradient", "light availability hypotheses", "light availability", "pest exclosure treatment", "processes sort species", "pest pressure", "species distribution patterns"], "article_id"=>1614374, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Julian Gaviria", "Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_site_species_origin_pest_exclosure_and_light_on_performance_parameters_of_tropical_tree_seedlings_/1614374", "title"=>"Effects of site, species origin, pest exclosure and light on performance parameters of tropical tree seedlings.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-11-30 03:23:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594617", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594618", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594619", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594620", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/2594621"], "description"=>"<div><p>Tree species distributions associated with rainfall are among the most prominent patterns in tropical forests. Understanding the mechanisms shaping these patterns is important to project impacts of global climate change on tree distributions and diversity in the tropics. Beside direct effects of water availability, additional factors co-varying with rainfall have been hypothesized to play an important role, including pest pressure and light availability. While low water availability is expected to exclude drought-intolerant wet forest species from drier forests (physiological tolerance hypothesis), high pest pressure or low light availability are hypothesized to exclude dry forest species from wetter forests (pest pressure gradient and light availability hypothesis, respectively). To test these hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition, the potentially most critical stage for species discrimination, we conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment combined with a pest exclosure treatment at a wet and a dry forest site in Panama with seeds of 26 species with contrasting origin. Establishment success after one year did not reflect species distribution patterns. However, in the wet forest, wet origin species had a home advantage over dry forest species through higher growth rates. At the same time, drought limited survival of wet origin species in the dry forest, supporting the physiological tolerance hypothesis. Together these processes sort species over longer time frames, and exclude species outside their respective home range. Although we found pronounced effects of pests and some effects of light availability on the seedlings, they did not corroborate the pest pressure nor light availability hypotheses at the seed-to-seedling transition. Our results underline that changes in water availability due to climate change will have direct consequences on tree regeneration and distributions along tropical rainfall gradients, while indirect effects of light and pests are less important.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["light availability hypothesis", "climate change", "origin species", "Tropical Rainfall Gradient Tree species distributions", "forest species", "water availability", "pest pressure gradient", "light availability hypotheses", "light availability", "pest exclosure treatment", "processes sort species", "pest pressure", "species distribution patterns"], "article_id"=>1614375, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Julian Gaviria", "Bettina M. J. Engelbrecht"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143955.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_Drought_Pest_Pressure_and_Light_Availability_on_Seedling_Establishment_and_Growth_Their_Role_for_Distribution_of_Tree_Species_across_a_Tropical_Rainfall_Gradient_/1614375", "title"=>"Effects of Drought, Pest Pressure and Light Availability on Seedling Establishment and Growth: Their Role for Distribution of Tree Species across a Tropical Rainfall Gradient", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2015-11-30 03:23:20"}

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{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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