Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia
Publication Date
March 01, 2016
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Aasef G. Shaikh, Jorge Otero Millan, Priyanka Kumar & Fatema F. Ghasia
Volume
11
Issue
3
Pages
e0149953
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0149953
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26930079
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773232
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/26930079
Web of Science
000371434500077
Scopus
84960968459
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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799086"], "description"=>"<p>Correlation of fixational saccade amplitude with peak drift velocity and eye position variance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086944, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Correlation_of_fixational_saccade_amplitude_with_peak_drift_velocity_and_eye_position_variance_/3086944", "title"=>"Correlation of fixational saccade amplitude with peak drift velocity and eye position variance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4797958", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4797979"], "description"=>"<div><p>Purpose</p><p>Fixational saccades shift the foveal image to counteract visual fading related to neural adaptation. Drifts are slow eye movements between two adjacent fixational saccades. We quantified fixational saccades and asked whether their changes could be attributed to pathologic drifts seen in amblyopia, one of the most common causes of blindness in childhood.</p><p>Methods</p><p>Thirty-six pediatric subjects with varying severity of amblyopia and eleven healthy age-matched controls held their gaze on a visual target. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video-oculography during fellow eye-viewing and amblyopic eye-viewing conditions. Fixational saccades and drifts were analyzed in the amblyopic and fellow eye and compared with controls.</p><p>Results</p><p>We found an increase in the amplitude with decreased frequency of fixational saccades in children with amblyopia. These alterations in fixational eye movements correlated with the severity of their amblyopia. There was also an increase in eye position variance during drifts in amblyopes. There was no correlation between the eye position variance or the eye velocity during ocular drifts and the amplitude of subsequent fixational saccade. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in fixational saccades in amblyopia are independent of the ocular drift.</p><p>Discussion</p><p>This investigation of amblyopia in pediatric age group quantitatively characterizes the fixation instability. Impaired properties of fixational saccades could be the consequence of abnormal processing and reorganization of the visual system in amblyopia. Paucity in the visual feedback during amblyopic eye-viewing condition can attribute to the increased eye position variance and drift velocity.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086113, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Abnormal_Fixational_Eye_Movements_in_Amblyopia/3086113", "title"=>"Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798804"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of fixational saccade amplitude in viewing and non-viewing eye.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086755, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_fixational_saccade_amplitude_in_viewing_and_non_viewing_eye_/3086755", "title"=>"Comparison of fixational saccade amplitude in viewing and non-viewing eye.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798099"], "description"=>"<p><b>An example of visual fixation during a 4-second epoch in a normal control (A) and a subject with severe amblyopia during fellow eye viewing condition (B) and amblyopic eye viewing condition (C).</b> The top two traces plots horizontal and vertical eye position along the y-axis and time along the x-axis. The bottom trace depicts the composite vector of horizontal and vertical eye positions. The gray colored trace is the non-viewing eye whereas the blue, red and green trace represents the horizontal, vertical and composite vector of the viewing eye. Short arrows represent fixational saccades.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086215, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Abnormal_Fixational_Eye_Movements_in_Amblyopia_Fig_1/3086215", "title"=>"Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia - Fig 1", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798351"], "description"=>"<p><b>Scatter plots of summary of the effects of severity of amblyopia on median frequency of fixational saccades less than 1° (physiological microsaccades) (A) and fixational saccades of all amplitudes (B) during fellow eye viewing condition (x-axis) and amblyopic eye viewing condition (y-axis).</b> Each symbol depicts one subject whereas the symbol type represents severity of amblyopia (cross symbol = mild amblyopia; square symbol = moderate amblyopia and triangle symbol = severe amblyopia. The dashed line is the equality line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086377, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Abnormal_Fixational_Eye_Movements_in_Amblyopia_Fig_3/3086377", "title"=>"Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia - Fig 3", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798948"], "description"=>"<p>Characteristics of ocular drifts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086860, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Characteristics_of_ocular_drifts_/3086860", "title"=>"Characteristics of ocular drifts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798642"], "description"=>"<p>Demographic and clinical features.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086605, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Demographic_and_clinical_features_/3086605", "title"=>"Demographic and clinical features.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798729"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of fixational saccade amplitude in viewing and non-viewing eye.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086689, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_fixational_saccade_amplitude_in_viewing_and_non_viewing_eye_/3086689", "title"=>"Comparison of fixational saccade amplitude in viewing and non-viewing eye.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4799023"], "description"=>"<p>Bivariate contour ellipse analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086896, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Bivariate_contour_ellipse_analysis_/3086896", "title"=>"Bivariate contour ellipse analysis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798435"], "description"=>"<p>Both symbols fall on the same continuum suggesting a common neural mechanism generating both types of fixational eye movements. Summary of all fixational saccades from all subjects are illustrated. Panel A depicts mild amblyopia; B is moderate; and C is severe amblyopia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086449, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Comparison_of_amplitude_to_velocity_relationship_of_physiological_fixational_saccades_less_than_1_degree_amplitude_microsaccades_green_symbols_and_those_with_pathologically_increased_amplitudes_in_amblyopia_red_symbols_/3086449", "title"=>"Comparison of amplitude to velocity relationship of physiological fixational saccades less than 1 degree amplitude (microsaccades, green symbols) and those with pathologically increased amplitudes in amblyopia (red symbols).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798513"], "description"=>"<p>The variance of composite eye position of the viewing and non-viewing eye during fellow eye (A) and amblyopic eye viewing (B) conditions. In both cases, each symbol is one drift (epoch of eye position between two consecutive fixational saccade). Each color represents the severity of amblyopia (gray: mild; blue: moderate; red: severe). The dashed line is the equality line. Panel C plots the median variance of the non-viewing eye during fellow eye viewing and amblyopic eye viewing conditions. Each symbol represents a subject where the symbol type indicates the severity of amblyopia. Box and whisker plots of the effects of severity of amblyopia compared to normal controls on the composite variance in eye position during fellow eye viewing condition (D) and amblyopic eye viewing condition (E). The length of each box depicts the interquartile interval; notch suggests 95% confidence interval around the median (if the two notches of a box-whisker plot do not overlap it offers evidence of a statistically significant difference between the medians) and the horizontal line in the center of the notch is the median value. Overlapping notches indicate a lack of difference in the median values of two populations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086515, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Abnormal_Fixational_Eye_Movements_in_Amblyopia_Fig_5/3086515", "title"=>"Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia - Fig 5", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798255"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Scatter plots of summary of the effects of severity of amblyopia on median amplitude of fixational saccades during fellow eye viewing condition (x-axis) and amblyopic eye viewing condition (y-axis). Each symbol depicts one subject whereas the symbol type represents severity of amblyopia. The dashed line is the equality line. (B, C) Summarizes the distribution of the fixational saccade amplitude during fellow eye viewing condition (B) and amblyopic eye viewing condition (C). A normalized number of events in a given bin is plotted along the y-axis while the x-axis represents the bins of fixational saccade amplitude of the viewing eye. The gray line illustrates the normalized frequency histogram of microsaccade amplitude in normal controls. The red, green and black lines represent mild, moderate and severe amblyopia subjects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086296, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Abnormal_Fixational_Eye_Movements_in_Amblyopia_Fig_2/3086296", "title"=>"Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia - Fig 2", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4798888"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency of microsaccades and fixational saccades.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amblyopic", "amblyopia", "Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements", "fixational eye movements", "eye movements", "eye position variance", "Amblyopia PurposeFixational saccades shift", "fixational saccades"], "article_id"=>3086815, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Cell Biology", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Mental Health", "Infectious Diseases"], "users"=>["Aasef G. Shaikh", "Jorge Otero-Millan", "Priyanka Kumar", "Fatema F. Ghasia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149953.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Frequency_of_microsaccades_and_fixational_saccades_/3086815", "title"=>"Frequency of microsaccades and fixational saccades.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-01 06:40:00"}

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{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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