Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception
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{"title"=>"Be happy not sad for your youth: The effect of emotional expression on age perception", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Norah C.", "last_name"=>"Hass", "scopus_author_id"=>"56585807500"}, {"first_name"=>"Trent D.", "last_name"=>"Weston", "scopus_author_id"=>"56585648900"}, {"first_name"=>"Seung Lark", "last_name"=>"Lim", "scopus_author_id"=>"55475550300"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84962641208", "sgr"=>"84962641208", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0152093", "pui"=>"609436713", "pmid"=>"27028300", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"cc9cb862-cccc-35a1-ab39-a9143354bf61", "abstract"=>"Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one's age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either \"young\" or \"old.\" Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/happy-not-sad-youth-effect-emotional-expression-age-perception", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Other"=>2, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>7, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4887343"], "description"=>"<p>Means and standard deviations of the proportion of old decisions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["threshold", "Age Perception Perceived age", "age levels", "expression"], "article_id"=>3142714, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Norah C. Hass", "Trent D. Weston", "Seung-Lark Lim"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152093.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Means_and_standard_deviations_of_the_proportion_of_old_decisions_/3142714", "title"=>"Means and standard deviations of the proportion of old decisions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>4, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-30 08:17:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4887325"], "description"=>"<p><b>A. Average probability of old responses as a function of age and emotional expressions of faces</b>. <b>B. Response times of age decisions.</b> Error bars denote the standard error of the mean. * <i>p</i> < .05, ** <i>p</i> < .01 compared to neutral faces (controls). <b>C. Psychometric curve fits.</b> For each emotional expression, psychometric curves were separately fitted by using the Naka-Rushton response function. A leftward-shift of the psychometric curve of sad faces (blue line) and a rightward-shift of the psychometric curve of happy faces (red line) compared to neutral faces (gray line) were observed. A dotted horizontal line represents the 50% probability of an old decision.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["threshold", "Age Perception Perceived age", "age levels", "expression"], "article_id"=>3142699, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Norah C. Hass", "Trent D. Weston", "Seung-Lark Lim"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152093.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Be_Happy_Not_Sad_for_Your_Youth_The_Effect_of_Emotional_Expression_on_Age_Perception_Fig_2/3142699", "title"=>"Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception - Fig 2", "pos_in_sequence"=>3, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-30 08:17:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4887364"], "description"=>"<p>Means and standard deviations of response times in millisecond.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["threshold", "Age Perception Perceived age", "age levels", "expression"], "article_id"=>3142732, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Norah C. Hass", "Trent D. Weston", "Seung-Lark Lim"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152093.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Means_and_standard_deviations_of_response_times_in_millisecond_/3142732", "title"=>"Means and standard deviations of response times in millisecond.", "pos_in_sequence"=>5, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-30 08:17:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4887283"], "description"=>"<div><p>Perceived age is a psychosocial factor that can influence both with whom and how we choose to interact socially. Though intuition tells us that a smile makes us look younger, surprisingly little empirical evidence exists to explain how age-irrelevant emotional expressions bias the subjective decision threshold for age. We examined the role that emotional expression plays in the process of judging one’s age from a face. College-aged participants were asked to sort the emotional and neutral expressions of male facial stimuli that had been morphed across eight age levels into categories of either “young” or “old.” Our results indicated that faces at the lower age levels were more likely to be categorized as old when they showed a sad facial expression compared to neutral expressions. Mirroring that, happy faces were more often judged as young at higher age levels than neutral faces. Our findings suggest that emotion interacts with age perception such that happy expression increases the threshold for an old decision, while sad expression decreases the threshold for an old decision in a young adult sample.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["threshold", "Age Perception Perceived age", "age levels", "expression"], "article_id"=>3142669, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Norah C. Hass", "Trent D. Weston", "Seung-Lark Lim"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152093", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Be_Happy_Not_Sad_for_Your_Youth_The_Effect_of_Emotional_Expression_on_Age_Perception/3142669", "title"=>"Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception", "pos_in_sequence"=>1, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-30 08:17:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4887376"], "description"=>"<p>Means and standard deviations of psychometric curve fit parameters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["threshold", "Age Perception Perceived age", "age levels", "expression"], "article_id"=>3142750, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Norah C. Hass", "Trent D. Weston", "Seung-Lark Lim"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152093.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Means_and_standard_deviations_of_psychometric_curve_fit_parameters_/3142750", "title"=>"Means and standard deviations of psychometric curve fit parameters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>6, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2016-03-30 08:17:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/4887298"], "description"=>"<p><b>A. Experimental stimuli used for the age judgment task.</b> All facial stimuli were computer-generated and no actual faces were used in our study. The emotional expression (sad, neutral, or happy) and age of the facial stimulus were manipulated by using morphing software. Faces of all emotional expressions have eight equivalent age gradients ranging from 30 years old to 65 years old increasing by 5-year increments. <b>B. Sample screen of the young-old judgment task.</b> Participants were asked to make an age decision in two-alternative forced-choice (either young or old) procedures. The positions of young and old labels were counterbalanced across participants. <b>C. Psychometric curves (Naka-Rushton contrast response model).</b> X-axis represents stimulus intensity level and Y-axis represents response probability. In our experiments, the stimulus intensity represents the incremental increase of age of morphed faces (30 to 65 years old) and the response represents the proportion of old decisions in a forced two-alternative choice task. The <i>C</i><sub><i>50</i></sub> or <i>PSE</i> (Point of Subjective Equality) parameter indicates the perceptual decision threshold. A leftward shift of the psychometric curve (see arrow) would constitute evidence for a decreased perceptual threshold for condition 1 compared to condition 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["threshold", "Age Perception Perceived age", "age levels", "expression"], "article_id"=>3142687, "categories"=>["Medicine", "Neuroscience", "Physiology", "Sociology", "Biological Sciences not elsewhere classified", "Developmental Biology", "Science Policy", "Mental Health"], "users"=>["Norah C. Hass", "Trent D. Weston", "Seung-Lark Lim"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152093.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Be_Happy_Not_Sad_for_Your_Youth_The_Effect_of_Emotional_Expression_on_Age_Perception_Fig_1/3142687", "title"=>"Be Happy Not Sad for Your Youth: The Effect of Emotional Expression on Age Perception - Fig 1", "pos_in_sequence"=>2, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2016-03-30 08:17:24"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2016-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2016-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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