Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores
Publication Date
July 14, 2016
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Kari A. Morfeld, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jennifer N. Hogan & Janine L. Brown
Volume
11
Issue
7
Pages
e0155146
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155146
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0155146
Scopus
84978757214
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/assessment-body-condition-african-loxodonta-africana-asian-elephas-maximus-elephants-north-american
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Assessment of body condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in North American zoos and management practices associated with high body condition scores", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kari A.", "last_name"=>"Morfeld", "scopus_author_id"=>"56135294700"}, {"first_name"=>"Cheryl L.", "last_name"=>"Meehan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004696378"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer N.", "last_name"=>"Hogan", "scopus_author_id"=>"57190257104"}, {"first_name"=>"Janine L.", "last_name"=>"Brown", "scopus_author_id"=>"7409454443"}], "year"=>2016, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84978757214", "pui"=>"611245067", "sgr"=>"84978757214", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"27415629", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0155146"}, "id"=>"33d7ba81-ea59-301e-be64-265b3c28de78", "abstract"=>"Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been specu- lated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi- variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) cate- gories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo ele- phants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/assessment-body-condition-african-loxodonta-africana-asian-elephas-maximus-elephants-north-american", "reader_count"=>45, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>11, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>9, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>23}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Denmark"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Russia"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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