Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica
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{"title"=>"Glacial refugia in pathogens: European genetic structure of anther smut pathogens on silene latifolia and silene dioica", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Elodie", "last_name"=>"Vercken", "scopus_author_id"=>"24367532800"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael C.", "last_name"=>"Fontaine", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101683471"}, {"first_name"=>"Pierre", "last_name"=>"Gladieux", "scopus_author_id"=>"16024401200"}, {"first_name"=>"Michael E.", "last_name"=>"Hood", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006920231"}, {"first_name"=>"Odile", "last_name"=>"Jonot", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603014058"}, {"first_name"=>"Tatiana", "last_name"=>"Giraud", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003726807"}], "year"=>2010, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-78650446432", "sgr"=>"78650446432", "pui"=>"361077393", "issn"=>"15537366", "isbn"=>"1553-7366", "pmid"=>"21187901", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229"}, "id"=>"eb5014c1-11f0-3c66-ae22-2b8e45296dbe", "abstract"=>"Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization patterns.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/glacial-refugia-pathogens-european-genetic-structure-anther-smut-pathogens-silene-latifolia-silene-d", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>5, "Researcher"=>23, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>48}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Sweden"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>2, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811862"], "description"=>"<p>The root of the trees was placed on the branch separating the two species. The bootstrap values above 50% are shown.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["distance-based", "neighbour-joining", "trees", "intraspecific", "clusters"], "article_id"=>482225, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Elodie Vercken", "Michaël C. Fontaine", "Pierre Gladieux", "Michael E. Hood", "Odile Jonot", "Tatiana Giraud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microsatellite_distance_based_Neighbour_Joining_trees_on_intraspecific_clusters_for_both_Microbotryum_lychnidis_dioicae_MvSl_and_M_silenes_dioicae_MvSd_/482225", "title"=>"Microsatellite distance-based Neighbour-Joining trees on intraspecific clusters for both <i>Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae</i> (MvSl) and <i>M. silenes-dioicae</i> (MvSd).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-16 00:37:05"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812097"], "description"=>"<p>N: within-cluster samples size; Ar: Allelic richness; pAr: private allelic richness; He: expected heterozygosity; Selfing rate: as inferred by InStruct; the first value of F<sub>IS</sub> for MvSd is when including the marker SL19 and the second value without this marker; Ln(distF(1)) and nF(1): logarithm of the mean geographic distance between genotypes of the first distance class and number of pairs considered in this class; spatial Sp statistic within cluster; b, regression slope between the kinship coefficient and the logarithm of the geographic distance; Mantel test's P-value (H<sub>0</sub>: b<sub>obs</sub> = b<sub>exp</sub>; H<sub>1</sub> = b<sub>obs</sub>exp).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["polymorphism", "spatial"], "article_id"=>482461, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Elodie Vercken", "Michaël C. Fontaine", "Pierre Gladieux", "Michael E. Hood", "Odile Jonot", "Tatiana Giraud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetic_polymorphism_and_spatial_pattern_within_each_cluster_of_Microbotryum_lychnidis_dioicae_MvSl_and_Microbotryum_silenes_dioicae_MvSd_/482461", "title"=>"Genetic polymorphism and spatial pattern within each cluster of <i>Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae</i> (MvSl) and <i>Microbotryum silenes-dioicae</i> (MvSd).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-16 00:41:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405195", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405213", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405234", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405262", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405283", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405299", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405319", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405336", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405351", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405363", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405385", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405403", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405435", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/405471"], "description"=>"<div><p>Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two <em>Microbotryum</em> species causing anther smut disease on the plants <em>Silene latifolia</em> and <em>Silene dioica</em>. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on <em>S. latifolia</em>, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species <em>S. latifolia</em>, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on <em>S. dioica</em> also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization patterns.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["glacial", "refugia", "european", "anther", "smut", "pathogens"], "article_id"=>140074, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Elodie Vercken", "Michaël C. Fontaine", "Pierre Gladieux", "Michael E. Hood", "Odile Jonot", "Tatiana Giraud"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.s015"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Glacial_Refugia_in_Pathogens_European_Genetic_Structure_of_Anther_Smut_Pathogens_on_Silene_latifolia_and_Silene_dioica_/140074", "title"=>"Glacial Refugia in Pathogens: European Genetic Structure of Anther Smut Pathogens on <em>Silene latifolia</em> and <em>Silene dioica</em>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2010-12-16 00:01:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811689"], "description"=>"<p>Maps of mean membership probabilities per localities from the InStruct analysis for <i>Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae</i> (MvSl) assuming 2 to 5 clusters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["probabilities", "localities", "assuming"], "article_id"=>482053, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Elodie Vercken", "Michaël C. Fontaine", "Pierre Gladieux", "Michael E. Hood", "Odile Jonot", "Tatiana Giraud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maps_of_mean_membership_probabilities_per_localities_from_the_InStruct_analysis_for_Microbotryum_lychnidis_dioicae_MvSl_assuming_2_to_5_clusters_/482053", "title"=>"Maps of mean membership probabilities per localities from the InStruct analysis for <i>Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae</i> (MvSl) assuming 2 to 5 clusters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-16 00:34:13"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811781"], "description"=>"<p>Samples have been aggregated on a grid in order to make this calculation on a minimum sample size of at least 4 genotypes. Localities where the sample size was below this threshold were not considered.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["allelic", "richness"], "article_id"=>482145, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Elodie Vercken", "Michaël C. Fontaine", "Pierre Gladieux", "Michael E. Hood", "Odile Jonot", "Tatiana Giraud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_allelic_richness_overall_loci_/482145", "title"=>"Map of allelic richness overall loci.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-16 00:35:45"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/812057"], "description"=>"<p>Repeat: Motifs and repeat numbers of the microsatellites in the isolated clones that served to develop the markers. N: number of samples successfully genotyped; range: allelic size range in number of repeats; A: number of alleles observed; H<sub>o</sub>: observed heterozygosity and He the expected heterozygosity (or overall genetic diversity in Nei 1987). Symbols (***) and (<sup>+++</sup>) show significant (p<0.001) deficit or excess in heterozygosity compared to Hardy-Weinberg expectations. A more detailed interpretation of the genetic polymorphism in MvSl and MvSd is provided in <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229#ppat.1001229.s013\" target=\"_blank\">Text S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["11", "microsatellite", "loci"], "article_id"=>482418, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Elodie Vercken", "Michaël C. Fontaine", "Pierre Gladieux", "Michael E. Hood", "Odile Jonot", "Tatiana Giraud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_on_the_11_microsatellite_loci_in_Microbotryum_lychnidis_dioicae_MvSl_and_Microbotryum_silenes_dioicae_MvSd_/482418", "title"=>"Summary statistics on the 11 microsatellite loci in <i>Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae</i> (MvSl) and <i>Microbotryum silenes-dioicae</i> (MvSd).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2010-12-16 00:40:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/811972"], "description"=>"<p>Maps of mean membership probabilities per locality from the InStruct analysis for <i>Microbotryum silenes-dioicae</i> (MvSd), assuming 2 to 5 clusters.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["probabilities", "locality", "assuming"], "article_id"=>482335, "categories"=>["Ecology", "Medicine", "Genetics"], "users"=>["Elodie Vercken", "Michaël C. Fontaine", "Pierre Gladieux", "Michael E. Hood", "Odile Jonot", "Tatiana Giraud"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001229.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Maps_of_mean_membership_probabilities_per_locality_from_the_InStruct_analysis_for_Microbotryum_silenes_dioicae_MvSd_assuming_2_to_5_clusters_/482335", "title"=>"Maps of mean membership probabilities per locality from the InStruct analysis for <i>Microbotryum silenes-dioicae</i> (MvSd), assuming 2 to 5 clusters.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2010-12-16 00:38:55"}

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