Multiple Plant Surface Signals are Sensed by Different Mechanisms in the Rice Blast Fungus for Appressorium Formation
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{"title"=>"Multiple plant surface signals are sensed by different mechanisms in the rice blast fungus for appressorium formation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wende", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55353457100"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiaoying", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410092436"}, {"first_name"=>"Guotian", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"37006755200"}, {"first_name"=>"Lei", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"57196177614"}, {"first_name"=>"Lingan", "last_name"=>"Kong", "scopus_author_id"=>"57199756938"}, {"first_name"=>"Chenfang", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"30067949700"}, {"first_name"=>"Haifeng", "last_name"=>"Zhang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56939935000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jin Rong", "last_name"=>"Xu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7408553914"}], "year"=>2011, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"15537366", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-79551545344", "pui"=>"361204772", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\n1553-7366 (Linking)", "sgr"=>"79551545344", "pmid"=>"21283781"}, "id"=>"9f56e232-e416-3b6d-8a75-e05600959618", "abstract"=>"Surface recognition and penetration are among the most critical plant infection processes in foliar pathogens. In Magnaporthe oryzae, the Pmk1 MAP kinase regulates appressorium formation and penetration. Its orthologs also are known to be required for various plant infection processes in other phytopathogenic fungi. Although a number of upstream components of this important pathway have been characterized, the upstream sensors for surface signals have not been well characterized. Pmk1 is orthologous to Kss1 in yeast that functions downstream from Msb2 and Sho1 for filamentous growth. Because of the conserved nature of the Pmk1 and Kss1 pathways and reduced expression of MoMSB2 in the pmk1 mutant, in this study we functionally characterized the MoMSB2 and MoSHO1 genes. Whereas the Momsb2 mutant was significantly reduced in appressorium formation and virulence, the Mosho1 mutant was only slightly reduced. The Mosho1 Momsb2 double mutant rarely formed appressoria on artificial hydrophobic surfaces, had a reduced Pmk1 phosphorylation level, and was nonresponsive to cutin monomers. However, it still formed appressoria and caused rare, restricted lesions on rice leaves. On artificial hydrophilic surfaces, leaf surface waxes and primary alcohols-but not paraffin waxes and alkanes- stimulated appressorium formation in the Mosho1 Momsb2 mutant, but more efficiently in the Momsb2 mutant. Furthermore, expression of a dominant active MST7 allele partially suppressed the defects of the Momsb2 mutant. These results indicate that, besides surface hydrophobicity and cutin monomers, primary alcohols, a major component of epicuticular leaf waxes in grasses, are recognized by M. oryzae as signals for appressorium formation. Our data also suggest that MoMsb2 and MoSho1 may have overlapping functions in recognizing various surface signals for Pmk1 activation and appressorium formation. While MoMsb2 is critical for sensing surface hydrophobicity and cutin monomers, MoSho1 may play a more important role in recognizing rice leaf waxes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/multiple-plant-surface-signals-sensed-different-mechanisms-rice-blast-fungus-appressorium-formation", "reader_count"=>59, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>6, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>15, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45, "Philosophy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>2, "France"=>2, "Australia"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805414"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Schematic drawing of different mutant alleles of <i>MoMSB2</i>. The numbers in the bracket indicate the amino acid residues deleted in each allele. <b>B</b>. Appressorium formation assays with transformants D5STR, D3STR, DSTR, DHMH, and DCT that expressed the <i>MoMSB2</i><sup>Δ5STR</sup>-, <i>MoMSB2</i><sup>Δ3STR</sup>-, <i>MoMSB2</i><sup>ΔSTR</sup>-, <i>MoMSB2</i><sup>ΔHMH</sup>-, and <i>MoMSB2</i><sup>ΔCT</sup>-eGFP alleles. Bar = 10 µm. <b>C</b>. Rice leaves inoculated with conidia from the same set of strains. Like the original <i>Momsb2</i> mutant, transformants DSTR and DHMH were significantly reduced in appressorium formation on hydrophobic surfaces and virulence.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characterization", "domains"], "article_id"=>475778, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Functional_characterization_of_different_domains_of_the_MoMSB2_gene_/475778", "title"=>"Functional characterization of different domains of the <i>MoMSB2</i> gene.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:36:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805176"], "description"=>"<p>Western blots were conducted with proteins isolated from vegetative hyphae of the wild-type (70-15) and the <i>Momsb2</i> (M6), <i>Mosho1</i> (S72), and <i>Mosho1 Momsb2</i> (MS88) mutant strains. <b>A</b>. The anti-MAPK and anti-TpEY antibodies detected the expression and phosphorylation levels of Pmk1 (42-kD) and Mps1 (46-kD), respectively. <b>B</b>. The 41-kD Osm1 band was detected with both an anti-P38 MAPK antibody and the anti-TpGY antibody.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["kinase"], "article_id"=>475543, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assays_for_MAP_kinase_phosphorylation_/475543", "title"=>"Assays for MAP kinase phosphorylation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:32:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805068"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Onion epidermal cells inoculated with Ku80, M6 (<i>Momsb2</i>), S72 (<i>Mosho1</i>), and MS88 (<i>Momsb2 Mosho1</i>) were examined 48 hpi. <b>B</b>. Epidermal cells of rice leaf sheaths were inoculated with the same set of strains and examined 48 hpi. A, appressorium; C, conidium; GT, germ tube; IH, infectious hypha. Bar = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["penetration", "assays", "epidermal"], "article_id"=>475433, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Appressorium_penetration_assays_with_onion_and_rice_epidermal_cells_/475433", "title"=>"Appressorium penetration assays with onion and rice epidermal cells.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:30:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805483"], "description"=>"<p>Wild-type and mutant strains of <i>Magnaporthe oryzae</i> used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mutant", "strains"], "article_id"=>475850, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wild_type_and_mutant_strains_of_Magnaporthe_oryzae_used_in_this_study_/475850", "title"=>"Wild-type and mutant strains of <i>Magnaporthe oryzae</i> used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:37:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/804812"], "description"=>"<p>Conidia from strains Ku80, M6 (<i>Momsb2</i>), S72 (<i>Mosho1</i>), and MS88 (<i>Mosho1 Momsb2</i>) mutants were incubated on: <b>A</b>) the hydrophilic surface in the presence of 10 µM 1,16-hexadecanediol; <b>B</b>) de-waxed leaves, and <b>C</b>) glass surface coated with the rice leaf wax extract. Representative germlings were photographed after 24 h incubation. Arrows marked appressoria. Bar = 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["treatments", "appressorium"], "article_id"=>475179, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assays_for_the_effects_of_different_treatments_on_appressorium_formation_/475179", "title"=>"Assays for the effects of different treatments on appressorium formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:26:19"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805234"], "description"=>"<p>Conidia from transformants of the wild-type strain 70-15 (WDA2) and the <i>Momsb2</i> mutant M6 (WDA12) expressing the <i>MST7</i><sup>DA</sup> allele were incubated on hydrophobic (upper) or hydrophilic (lower) surface of Gelbond membranes for 24 h. Bar = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["expressing", "allele", "appressorium"], "article_id"=>475598, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_expressing_the_dominant_active_allele_of_MST7_on_appressorium_formation_/475598", "title"=>"Effects of expressing the dominant active allele of <i>MST7</i> on appressorium formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:33:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/804723"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Rice leaves inoculated with conidia from strains Ku80, M6 (<i>Momsb2</i>), and MS88 (<i>Mosho1 Momsb2</i>). Melanized appressoria were observed 24 hpi. <b>B</b>. Appressoria formed by the same set of strains on rice leaf surface examined under SEM. The mutants produced appressoria at the tip of long germ tubes. Bar = 10 µm. Arrows marked appressoria.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["assays"], "article_id"=>475088, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Appressorium_formation_assays_with_intact_rice_leaves_/475088", "title"=>"Appressorium formation assays with intact rice leaves.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:24:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/804947"], "description"=>"<p>Conidia from strains Ku80 (WT), M6 (<i>Momsb2</i>), <i>Mosho1</i> (S72), and MS88 (<i>Momsb2 Mosho1</i>) were place over microscope glass slides coated with bee waxes (<b>A</b>), paraffin waxes (<b>B</b>), C28 primary alcohol 1-Octacosanol (<b>C</b>), and C31 alkane hentricacontane (<b>D</b>). Bar = 10 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["induced", "waxes", "wax"], "article_id"=>475310, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Appressorium_formation_induced_by_different_waxes_or_wax_components_/475310", "title"=>"Appressorium formation induced by different waxes or wax components.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:28:30"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805529"], "description"=>"a<p>Growth rate (extension in colony diameter) and conidiation were assayed with OA cultures.</p>b<p>Percentage of germ tubes formed appressoria on the hydrophobic side of Gelbond membranes by 24 h.</p>c<p>Lesion formation was examined on infected rice leaves 7 days after inoculation. Means and SD values were calculated from at least three independent experiments.</p>d<p>Not assayed.</p><p>*Data from three replicates were analyzed with the protected Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) test. The same letter indicated that there was no significant difference. Different letters were used to mark statistically significant difference (P = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["characterization", "mutants", "generated"], "article_id"=>475895, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phenotype_characterization_of_the_mutants_generated_in_this_study_/475895", "title"=>"Phenotype characterization of the mutants generated in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:38:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402050", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402147", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402190", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402219", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402250", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402269", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402294", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402330", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402357", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/402386"], "description"=>"<div><p>Surface recognition and penetration are among the most critical plant infection processes in foliar pathogens. In <em>Magnaporthe oryzae</em>, the Pmk1 MAP kinase regulates appressorium formation and penetration. Its orthologs also are known to be required for various plant infection processes in other phytopathogenic fungi. Although a number of upstream components of this important pathway have been characterized, the upstream sensors for surface signals have not been well characterized. Pmk1 is orthologous to Kss1 in yeast that functions downstream from Msb2 and Sho1 for filamentous growth. Because of the conserved nature of the Pmk1 and Kss1 pathways and reduced expression of <em>MoMSB2</em> in the <em>pmk1</em> mutant, in this study we functionally characterized the <em>MoMSB2</em> and <em>MoSHO1</em> genes. Whereas the <em>Momsb2</em> mutant was significantly reduced in appressorium formation and virulence, the <em>Mosho1</em> mutant was only slightly reduced. The <em>Mosho1 Momsb2</em> double mutant rarely formed appressoria on artificial hydrophobic surfaces, had a reduced Pmk1 phosphorylation level, and was nonresponsive to cutin monomers. However, it still formed appressoria and caused rare, restricted lesions on rice leaves. On artificial hydrophilic surfaces, leaf surface waxes and primary alcohols-but not paraffin waxes and alkanes- stimulated appressorium formation in the <em>Mosho1 Momsb2</em> mutant, but more efficiently in the <em>Momsb2</em> mutant. Furthermore, expression of a dominant active <em>MST7</em> allele partially suppressed the defects of the <em>Momsb2</em> mutant. These results indicate that, besides surface hydrophobicity and cutin monomers, primary alcohols, a major component of epicuticular leaf waxes in grasses, are recognized <em>by M. oryzae</em> as signals for appressorium formation. Our data also suggest that MoMsb2 and MoSho1 may have overlapping functions in recognizing various surface signals for Pmk1 activation and appressorium formation. While MoMsb2 is critical for sensing surface hydrophobicity and cutin monomers, MoSho1 may play a more important role in recognizing rice leaf waxes.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["signals", "are", "sensed", "mechanisms", "fungus", "appressorium"], "article_id"=>139448, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>21, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Multiple_Plant_Surface_Signals_are_Sensed_by_Different_Mechanisms_in_the_Rice_Blast_Fungus_for_Appressorium_Formation/139448", "title"=>"Multiple Plant Surface Signals are Sensed by Different Mechanisms in the Rice Blast Fungus for Appressorium Formation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 02:37:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/804632"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Conidia from wild-type strains 70-15 and Ku80, <i>Momsb2</i> mutant M6, <i>Mosho1</i> mutant S72, <i>Mosho1 Momsb1</i> mutant MS88, and an ectopic transformant Ect16 were incubated on hydrophobic surfaces for 24 h. Bar = 20 µm. <b>B</b>. Rice leaves sprayed with conidia from the same set of strains. Typical leaves were photographed 7 dpi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cell biology/cell signaling", "microbiology/cellular microbiology and pathogenesis", "microbiology/microbial growth and development"], "article_id"=>475002, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Appressorium_formation_and_plant_infection_assays_/475002", "title"=>"Appressorium formation and plant infection assays.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:23:22"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/804540"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. qRT-PCR assay of <i>MoMSB2</i> and <i>MoSHO1</i> expression in the wild-type, <i>pmk1</i>, and <i>mst12</i> mutant strains. The relative expression level of <i>MoMSB2</i> and <i>MoSHO1</i> in the mutants was compared to that of the wild-type strain (arbitrarily set to 1). Mean and standard error were calculated with data from three biological replicates. <b>B</b>. Schematic drawing of domains identified in MoMsb2 and MoSho1. SP, signal peptide; STR, serine/threonine rich region; HMH, Hkr1-Msb2 homology domain; TM, transmembrane domain; CT, cytoplasmic tail; SH3, and Src homology 3 domain. <b>C</b>. Colonies of XK1-25 (WT) and <i>sho1</i> mutant transformed with pYES2 (GL1) or pMoSHO1 (GL2). Photos were taken after incubation for two days on YPGal plates with or without 1.5 M sorbitol.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["orthologs"], "article_id"=>474908, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_MSB2_and_SHO1_orthologs_in_M_oryzae_/474908", "title"=>"The <i>MSB2</i> and <i>SHO1</i> orthologs in <i>M. oryzae</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:21:48"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805567"], "description"=>"a<p>Percentage of germ tubes formed appressoria. Mean and standard error were calculated from three independent replicates.</p>b<p>No appressoria were observed.</p>c<p>The primary alcohol and alkane used in this study were 1-triacontanol (C30) and hentricacontane (C31), respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["slides", "coated"], "article_id"=>475930, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Appressorium_formation_on_glass_slides_coated_with_different_waxes_/475930", "title"=>"Appressorium formation on glass slides coated with different waxes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:38:50"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/805308"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>. Conidia, germ tubes, and young appressoria of the <i>MoMSB2</i>-eGFP (CM6) and <i>MoMSB2</i><sup>ΔSP</sup>-eGFP (DSSM) transformants were examined by DIC or epifluoresence microscopy. <b>B</b>. In mature appressoria (24 h) of transformant CM6, GFP signals localized to small vacuole-like structures (marked with arrows). In transformant DSSM, appressorium formation was not observed and GFP signals localized in the cytoplasm. Bar = 10 µm. The same fields were examined under DIC (left) and epifluoresence microscopy (right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["subcellular", "localization"], "article_id"=>475676, "categories"=>["Microbiology", "Cell Biology"], "users"=>["Wende Liu", "Xiaoying Zhou", "Guotian Li", "Lei Li", "Lingan Kong", "Chenfang Wang", "Haifeng Zhang", "Jin-Rong Xu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1001261.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Expression_and_subcellular_localization_of_MoMsb2_eGFP_/475676", "title"=>"Expression and subcellular localization of MoMsb2-eGFP.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2011-01-20 01:34:36"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

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