Make It, Take It, or Leave It: Heme Metabolism of Parasites
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{"title"=>"Make It, Take It, or Leave It: Heme Metabolism of Parasites", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Luděk", "last_name"=>"Kořený", "scopus_author_id"=>"26433575200"}, {"first_name"=>"Miroslav", "last_name"=>"Oborník", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602767352"}, {"first_name"=>"Julius", "last_name"=>"Lukeš", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006991129"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84875057433", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003088", "pui"=>"368538268", "pmid"=>"23349629", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84875057433", "issn"=>"15537366", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"4fdccb5b-1b23-3bf8-b92b-8aefbe36cb23", "abstract"=>"Heme and other tetrapyrroles, often called ‘‘the colors of life’’, belong to the most important molecules of almost all extant organisms. They are synthesized by a common multistep pathway that is highly conserved throughout the tree of life [1]. One of the tetrapyrrole products is chlorophyll, the green pigment of plants and other phototrophs, which captures the energy of the sun. Vitamin B12, the most complex tetrapyrrole, is involved in DNA synthesis and energy metabolism [2]. The major product of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in non-photosynthetic organisms is heme, an iron- coordinated porphyrin with the capacity to transfer electrons and bind diatomic gases. Here we summarize the current understanding of different aspects of heme metabolism in parasitic eukaryotes, including the synthesis and uptake of heme and its detoxification. A differential need for heme in distinct parasitic groups and the suitability of heme metabolism as a drug target for treating parasite- borne diseases are also discussed. First, however, let us review the functions of heme in various cellular processes.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/make-it-take-it-leave-it-heme-metabolism-parasites", "reader_count"=>99, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>8, "Researcher"=>27, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>32, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>9, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>21, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57, "Chemistry"=>7, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>7}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>5}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>57}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>21}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Argentina"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Taiwan"=>1, "Brazil"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>4, "Australia"=>1, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506142"], "description"=>"<p>Heme proteins of selected parasitic groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["proteins", "parasitic"], "article_id"=>176664, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luděk Kořený", "Miroslav Oborník", "Julius Lukeš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003088.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Heme_proteins_of_selected_parasitic_groups_/176664", "title"=>"Heme proteins of selected parasitic groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:56:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/506036"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of different types of heme synthesis and independent losses of heme biosynthetic pathways in eukaryotes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["types", "heme", "synthesis", "losses", "biosynthetic", "pathways"], "article_id"=>176547, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luděk Kořený", "Miroslav Oborník", "Julius Lukeš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003088.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_different_types_of_heme_synthesis_and_independent_losses_of_heme_biosynthetic_pathways_in_eukaryotes_/176547", "title"=>"Distribution of different types of heme synthesis and independent losses of heme biosynthetic pathways in eukaryotes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:56:03"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/505912"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Intracellular localizations of heme synthesis enzymes and heme trafficking in various parasites. The colors and numbers of the phylogenetic lineages in (B) and (C) correspond to the colors of the pathways and numbers in the schematics in (A). The blue line (no. 1) represents the original pathway of the primary heterotroph and is similar to the well characterized C4 pathways of animals and fungi. The green line (no. 2) represents the plastidial C5 pathway of the endosymbiotic alga and is present in most phototrophs. In the ancestral lineages of alveolates, both of these pathways co-existed as in extant photosynthetic euglenids. The lines no. 3 and 4 represent the hybrid pathways of photosynthetic chromerids and apicomplexan parasites, which resulted from the combination of the original pathway of the host (no. 1) and the plastidial pathway from the algal endosymbiont (no. 2). FeCH in a red box was acquired via lateral gene transfer (LGT) from a γ-proteobacterium. The purple line (no. 6) represents the partial pathway of the trypanosomatid flagellates, which consists of the last three steps encoded by enzymes of γ-proteobacterial origin. The orange line (no. 7) is the heme synthesis pathway of the β-proteobacterial endosymbionts of one group of trypanosomatids. T stands for porphyrin transporters. (B) Evolution of the heme biosynthesis in Alveolata leading to the unique pathway of apicomplexan parasites. (C) Evolution of the heme synthesis in Euglenozoa leading to the loss of the pathway in ancestral kinetoplastids and its partial rescue by bacterial genes for the last three steps and full rescue by bacterial endosymbionts in trypanosomatids. The abbreviated enzyme names are: ALAS, ALA-synthase; GTR, glutamyl-tRNA reductase; GSA-AT, glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase; ALAD, ALA-dehydratase; PBGD, porphobilinogen deaminase; UROS, uroporphyrinogen synthase; UROD, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase; CPOX, coproporphyrinogen oxidase; PPOX, protoporphyrinogen oxidase; FeCH, ferrochelatase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ways", "heme", "distributions", "alveolates"], "article_id"=>176428, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Luděk Kořený", "Miroslav Oborník", "Julius Lukeš"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003088.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Different_ways_of_heme_acquisition_and_their_distributions_within_alveolates_and_kinetoplastids_/176428", "title"=>"Different ways of heme acquisition and their distributions within alveolates and kinetoplastids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-02-19 16:55:23"}

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Relative Metric

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