Killer Bee Molecules: Antimicrobial Peptides as Effector Molecules to Target Sporogonic Stages of Plasmodium
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{"title"=>"Killer Bee Molecules: Antimicrobial Peptides as Effector Molecules to Target Sporogonic Stages of Plasmodium", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Victoria", "last_name"=>"Carter", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197152718"}, {"first_name"=>"Ann", "last_name"=>"Underhill", "scopus_author_id"=>"17342814600"}, {"first_name"=>"Ibrahima", "last_name"=>"Baber", "scopus_author_id"=>"21742115600"}, {"first_name"=>"Lakamy", "last_name"=>"Sylla", "scopus_author_id"=>"57156225000"}, {"first_name"=>"Mounirou", "last_name"=>"Baby", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602939648"}, {"first_name"=>"Isabelle", "last_name"=>"Larget-Thiery", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507576906"}, {"first_name"=>"Agnès", "last_name"=>"Zettor", "scopus_author_id"=>"26636229100"}, {"first_name"=>"Catherine", "last_name"=>"Bourgouin", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603717350"}, {"first_name"=>"Ülo", "last_name"=>"Langel", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004415478"}, {"first_name"=>"Ingrid", "last_name"=>"Faye", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006251312"}, {"first_name"=>"Laszlo", "last_name"=>"Otvos", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103273196"}, {"first_name"=>"John D.", "last_name"=>"Wade", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201786762"}, {"first_name"=>"Mamadou B.", "last_name"=>"Coulibaly", "scopus_author_id"=>"11640804400"}, {"first_name"=>"Sekou F.", "last_name"=>"Traore", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005442720"}, {"first_name"=>"Frederic", "last_name"=>"Tripet", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701737379"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Eggleston", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102797750"}, {"first_name"=>"Hilary", "last_name"=>"Hurd", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006852961"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"PLoS Pathogens", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84888234637", "pmid"=>"24278025", "sgr"=>"84888234637", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790", "isbn"=>"1553-7374 (Electronic)\\r1553-7366 (Linking)", "issn"=>"15537366", "pui"=>"370341904"}, "id"=>"d8e437c2-6830-3a0b-abc2-44af41617731", "abstract"=>"A new generation of strategies is evolving that aim to block malaria transmission by employing genetically modified vectors or mosquito pathogens or symbionts that express anti-parasite molecules. Whilst transgenic technologies have advanced rapidly, there is still a paucity of effector molecules with potent anti-malaria activity whose expression does not cause detrimental effects on mosquito fitness. Our objective was to examine a wide range of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for their toxic effects on Plasmodium and anopheline mosquitoes. Specifically targeting early sporogonic stages, we initially screened AMPs for toxicity against a mosquito cell line and P. berghei ookinetes. Promising candidate AMPs were fed to mosquitoes to monitor adverse fitness effects, and their efficacy in blocking rodent malaria infection in Anopheles stephensi was assessed. This was followed by tests to determine their activity against P. falciparum in An. gambiae, initially using laboratory cultures to infect mosquitoes, then culminating in preliminary assays in the field using gametocytes and mosquitoes collected from the same area in Mali, West Africa. From a range of 33 molecules, six AMPs able to block Plasmodium development were identified: Anoplin, Duramycin, Mastoparan X, Melittin, TP10 and Vida3. With the exception of Anoplin and Mastoparan X, these AMPs were also toxic to an An. gambiae cell line at a concentration of 25 µM. However, when tested in mosquito blood feeds, they did not reduce mosquito longevity or egg production at concentrations of 50 µM. Peptides effective against cultured ookinetes were less effective when tested in vivo and differences in efficacy against P. berghei and P. falciparum were seen. From the range of molecules tested, the majority of effective AMPs were derived from bee/wasp venoms.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/killer-bee-molecules-antimicrobial-peptides-effector-molecules-target-sporogonic-stages-plasmodium", "reader_count"=>56, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>27}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1, "Kenya"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292968"], "description"=>"<p>Mosquitoes were provided with a gametocytaemic blood meal mixed with 50 µM of peptide, performed in triplicate. Prevalence (the proportion of infected mosquitoes with total numbers in parentheses) and intensity (mean number of oocysts with the range in parentheses) of infections with paired controls are shown. N/S indicates non-significance. Significant differences are indicated by probability values with (▴) representing oocyst numbers significantly higher than control and (▾) representing oocyst numbers lower than control.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antimicrobial", "peptides", "infections"], "article_id"=>860332, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_antimicrobial_peptides_against_P_berghei_infections_in_Anopheles_stephensi_/860332", "title"=>"Effect of antimicrobial peptides against <i>P. berghei</i> infections in <i>Anopheles stephensi</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292964"], "description"=>"<p>A description of all antimicrobial peptides tested in the current study. AMPs were sourced from a variety of organisms displaying antibacterial, antifungal and/or anti-parasitic properties. Custom peptides were also included.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peptide"], "article_id"=>860329, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antimicrobial_peptide_used_in_the_current_study_origin_and_size_/860329", "title"=>"Antimicrobial peptide used in the current study: origin and size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292962"], "description"=>"<p>Mosquitoes were fed blood containing 50 µM of TP10 dimer, or control on days 0 and 7 (arrows). Fully engorged females from each treatment group were separated into cages of 25 individuals to facilitate counting. Mosquito deaths, from a starting total of 100, were recorded daily. This figure shows the survival plot for one replicate with 50 µM of TP10 dimer, using the Kaplan-Meier method. The black line indicates mosquitoes fed with TP10 dimer, the red line, control mosquitoes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mosquitoes", "fed", "tp10"], "article_id"=>860327, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Survival_plot_for_mosquitoes_fed_with_TP10_dimer_/860327", "title"=>"Survival plot for mosquitoes fed with TP10 dimer.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292963"], "description"=>"<p>Mosquitoes were fed blood containing gametocytes of rodent malaria (fed to <i>An. stephensi</i>) or human malaria (fed to <i>An. gambiae</i>) supplemented with the AMP Melittin. Fully engorged females were maintained in standardized conditions for 7–8 days prior to dissection for oocyst burdens. Each experiment was performed in triplicate with control feeds containing no AMP. Individual value plots for each dissected midgut are shown. Black diamonds represent the median oocyst burden for each group. Approximately 40–50 individuals were dissected for <i>P. berghei</i> infections and 30 individuals for <i>P. falciparum</i> infections (see <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790#ppat-1003790-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Tables 5</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plospathogens.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790#ppat-1003790-t006\" target=\"_blank\">6</a> for full details). A. 50 µM of Melittin added to blood containing <i>P. berghei</i> gametocytes. B. 50 µM of Melittin added to blood containing <i>P. falciparum</i> gametocytes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["melittin"], "article_id"=>860328, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_Melittin_on_Plasmodium_development_in_mosquitoes_/860328", "title"=>"Effect of Melittin on <i>Plasmodium</i> development in mosquitoes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292981", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292982", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292983"], "description"=>"<div><p>A new generation of strategies is evolving that aim to block malaria transmission by employing genetically modified vectors or mosquito pathogens or symbionts that express anti-parasite molecules. Whilst transgenic technologies have advanced rapidly, there is still a paucity of effector molecules with potent anti-malaria activity whose expression does not cause detrimental effects on mosquito fitness. Our objective was to examine a wide range of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for their toxic effects on <i>Plasmodium</i> and anopheline mosquitoes. Specifically targeting early sporogonic stages, we initially screened AMPs for toxicity against a mosquito cell line and <i>P. berghei</i> ookinetes. Promising candidate AMPs were fed to mosquitoes to monitor adverse fitness effects, and their efficacy in blocking rodent malaria infection in <i>Anopheles stephensi</i> was assessed. This was followed by tests to determine their activity against <i>P. falciparum</i> in <i>An. gambiae</i>, initially using laboratory cultures to infect mosquitoes, then culminating in preliminary assays in the field using gametocytes and mosquitoes collected from the same area in Mali, West Africa. From a range of 33 molecules, six AMPs able to block <i>Plasmodium</i> development were identified: Anoplin, Duramycin, Mastoparan X, Melittin, TP10 and Vida3. With the exception of Anoplin and Mastoparan X, these AMPs were also toxic to an <i>An. gambiae</i> cell line at a concentration of 25 µM. However, when tested in mosquito blood feeds, they did not reduce mosquito longevity or egg production at concentrations of 50 µM. Peptides effective against cultured ookinetes were less effective when tested <i>in vivo</i> and differences in efficacy against <i>P. berghei</i> and <i>P. falciparum</i> were seen. From the range of molecules tested, the majority of effective AMPs were derived from bee/wasp venoms.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antimicrobial", "peptides", "effector", "molecules", "sporogonic", "stages"], "article_id"=>860337, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Killer_Bee_Molecules_Antimicrobial_Peptides_as_Effector_Molecules_to_Target_Sporogonic_Stages_of_Plasmodium_/860337", "title"=>"Killer Bee Molecules: Antimicrobial Peptides as Effector Molecules to Target Sporogonic Stages of <i>Plasmodium</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292977"], "description"=>"<p>Peptides (final concentration of 50 µM) were mixed with human blood containing <i>P. falciparum</i> parasites from gametocyte carriers in the village of Nyaganabougou. This was membrane-fed to the progeny of <i>An. gambiae</i> mosquitoes collected from neighbouring areas. For each replicate, oocyst prevalence (number of oocyst positive mosquitoes, total number in parentheses) and oocyst intensity (mean number of oocysts present per gut, range in parentheses) were recorded. An equivalent volume of water without peptide was used for the control. N/D indicates not determined. N/S indicates non-significance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antimicrobial", "peptides", "parasites"], "article_id"=>860335, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_antimicrobial_peptides_on_field_parasites_and_mosquitoes_/860335", "title"=>"Effect of antimicrobial peptides on field parasites and mosquitoes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292980"], "description"=>"<p>Peptides (final concentration of 50 µM) were mixed with cultured <i>P. falciparum</i> gametocytes and membrane-fed to <i>An. gambiae</i> mosquitoes (performed at the Pasteur Institute, Paris). For each of three replicates, oocyst prevalence (number of oocyst positive mosquitoes, total number in parentheses) and oocyst intensity (mean number of oocysts present per gut, range in parentheses) were recorded. An equivalent volume of water without peptide was used for the control. N/S indicates non-significance.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["antimicrobial", "peptides", "cultured"], "article_id"=>860336, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_antimicrobial_peptides_against_P_falciparum_cultured_gametocytes_/860336", "title"=>"Effect of antimicrobial peptides against <i>P. falciparum</i> cultured gametocytes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292970"], "description"=>"<p>Peptides were incubated with ookinetes for 30 min to assess their speed of action and efficacy. This table summarizes peptides with significant effects on ookinete viability in these conditions (n = 150 ookinetes per treatment in each replicate). Where 100% mortality was not achieved at 50 µM, peptides were doubled in concentration (100 µM) or added in combination with another peptide to total 50 µM (25 µM of each peptide). All results were significant for Wilcoxon Rank sign test at p<0.009.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amps", "ookinetes", "30"], "article_id"=>860334, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_AMPs_on_P_berghei_ookinetes_after_30_minutes_/860334", "title"=>"Effect of AMPs on <i>P. berghei</i> ookinetes after 30 minutes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292966"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of AMPs on growth of <i>Anopheles gambiae</i> Sua 4.0 cells. Cells were seeded at a density of 30×10<sup>4</sup>/ml with the addition of 25 µM AMP. Cells in different duplicate wells were counted after 3, 24 and 48 h to assess cell growth. Experiments were repeated three times. Differences between cell numbers in peptide and control wells were assessed using one-way ANOVA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amps", "sua"], "article_id"=>860331, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_AMPs_on_Anopheles_gambiae_Sua_4_0_cell_growth_/860331", "title"=>"Effects of AMPs on <i>Anopheles gambiae</i> Sua 4.0 cell growth.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1292965"], "description"=>"<p>Effect of AMPs on viability of <i>Anopheles gambiae</i> Sua 4.0 cells. After 48 h of culture, 100 cells were counted in triplicate wells for each peptide for erythrosin B exclusion. Melittin caused 100% lysis of cells, and therefore viability was not assessed. Differences between viability in peptide and control wells were assessed using one-way ANOVA. N/D indicates not determined.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["amps", "sua", "viability", "48"], "article_id"=>860330, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Victoria Carter", "Ann Underhill", "Ibrahima Baber", "Lakamy Sylla", "Mounirou Baby", "Isabelle Larget-Thiery", "Agnes Zettor", "Catherine Bourgouin", "Ülo Langel", "Ingrid Faye", "Laszlo Otvos", "John D. Wade", "Mamadou B. Coulibaly", "Sékou F. Traoré", "Frédéric Tripet", "Paul Eggleston", "Hilary Hurd"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003790.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_AMPs_on_Anopheles_gambiae_Sua_4_0_cell_viability_after_48_hrs_/860330", "title"=>"Effects of AMPs on <i>Anopheles gambiae</i> Sua 4.0 cell viability after 48 hrs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2013-11-21 05:15:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

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